Meditation Masters
西天禪師


Sakyamuni Buddha
釋迦牟尼文佛

The Buddha manifested in the world in Central India as the son of the King Shuddhodana. He renounced the position of Wheel-turning Sage King, left the home-life, accomplished the unsurpassed Way, and turned the great Dharma Wheel. At age seventy-nine, he entered Parinirvana, after transmitting the Proper Dharma Eye Treasury to his lofty disciple Mahakasyapa. He also named Ananda the second in line to inherit the transmission. Moreover he gave Great Kasyapa a golden samghati robe to transmit to Maitreya Buddha in the future, speaking the following transmission verse:
At its base the Dharma is no Dharma,
And this Dharma of no Dharma is also Dharma;
Now, transmitting that no Dharma,
How can there be any Dharma?

佛示生於中天竺國,為淨飯聖王之子。尋捨轉輪聖王位出家,成無上道,轉大法輪。其後七十九歲,垂般涅槃。乃以正法眼藏,付其高第弟子摩訶迦葉,并敕阿難,副二傳化。復以金縷僧伽梨衣,令大迦葉轉付當來補處彌勒佛。其說偈曰:
法本法無法,無法法亦法;今付無法時,法法何曾法?

白話解釋


The First Patriarch, The Venerable Mahakashyapa
初祖摩訶迦葉尊者

The Venerable One was a native of the country of Magadha and was born into a Brahman family. His complexion was the color of gold. Upon seeing the Buddha he left the home life, with the intention of saving all living beings. The Buddha declared him foremost in the Assembly. One day the Buddha, in the Assembly on Magic Mountain, picked up a golden utpala bloom and showed it to the Assembly. At the time the great Assembly was silent, except for the Venerable One, whose countenance broke into a smile. The Buddha said, "The Proper Dharma Eye Treasury which I possess, the wonderful mind of Nirvana, of real mark with no mark, the subtle and wonderful Dharma door, which establishes no texts and is a special transmission outside the teachings, I entrust to Mahakashyapa." He also handed on to him the samghati robe of gold thread saying, "Pass this on to the future Buddha Maitreya." The Venerable One bowed and replied, "I shall revere the Buddha’s instructions." Afterwards the Venerable One transmitted the Dharma to Ananda then, taking the samghati, went into Chicken Foot Mountain and entered samadhi to wait for Maitreya to be born.

尊者,本摩竭陀國人,出婆羅門氏,其形金色。見佛出家,冀度諸有。佛於眾中,稱為第一。一日,佛於靈山會上,拈出一枝金色缽羅花示眾。時大眾默然,惟尊者破顏微笑。佛曰:「吾有正法眼藏,涅槃妙心,實相無相,微妙法門,不立文字,教外別傳,付囑摩訶迦葉。」復以金縷僧伽梨囑曰:「轉授當來慈氏佛。」尊者作禮曰:「恭依佛敕。」後尊者以法轉付阿難,即持僧伽梨入雞足山入定,以俟慈氏下生。

白話解釋


The Second Patriarch, The Venerable Ananda
二祖阿難陀尊者

The Venerable One was from the city of Rajagrha, the son of King Dronodana, and a cousin of the Buddha. He was foremost in learning among the followers of the Buddha. One day he asked Kashyapa, "Elder Dharma brother, besides the golden kashaya, what else did the World-Honored One transmit?"
Kashyapa called Ananda. The Venerable One answered. Kashyapa told him, "The yashti fallen down in front of the gate."
Afterwards, Kashyapa also told the Venerable One, "This year I will not remain long, so now I will pass the Proper Dharma on to you. Protect it well."
Later on, the Venerable One transmitted the Dharma to Shanakavasa. In the Ganges River he entered extinction in midstream. His body rose in space, and he manifested the eighteen transformations of an Arhat. He entered the wind-sprint samadhi, and divided his body into four parts. One was offered up to the Heaven of the Thirty-three, one to the Dragon Sagara's palace, one to the King of Vaishali, and one to King Ajatashatru. At each location was built a jeweled stupa where offerings were made.

尊者。王舍城人。斛飯王子。佛之從弟也。多聞第一。一日問迦葉曰。師兄。世尊傳金欄袈裟外。別傳箇甚麼。迦葉召阿難。尊者應諾。迦葉曰。倒卻門前剎竿著。後迦葉乃告尊者曰。我今年不久留。今將正法付囑於汝。汝善守護。後尊者轉付法於商那和修。於恆河中流入滅。湧身虛空。現十八變。入風奮迅三昧。分身四分。一奉忉利天。一奉娑竭羅龍宮。一奉毗舍離王。一奉阿闍世王。各各造寶塔供養。

白話解釋


The Third Patriarch, The Venerable Shanakavasa
三祖商那和修尊者

The Venerable One was a native of the country Mathura. His family name was Vishodaka. He was in his mother's womb for six years. Omens appeared and then he was born. Afterwards he left home and studied the Way of the Immortals. He dwelt in the Himalayas. Because when Ananda was about to enter extinction the mountains, rivers and the great earth moved and quaked in six ways, the Venerable One with five hundred immortals bowed at Ananda's feet, knelt, and made the following request:
"From the Elder I should certify to the Buddhadharma. Please consent to liberate me." Ananda then changed the Ganges River into golden ground and to speak great Dharma said:
"In the past the Thus Come One transmitted the Proper Dharma Eye to Great Kasyapa, who transmitted it to me. I now transmit it to you." The Venerable One immediately obtained the Dharma. Two fiery dragons descended from heaven to found a pure hall he turned the great Dharma Wheel. Afterwards he transmitted the Dharma to Upagupta, and hid away in the country of Kashmir on Ivory-White Mountain. He manifested the eighteen transformations of an Arhat, and used the Fire Light Samadhi to burn up his body.

尊者,摩突羅國人也,姓毗舍多,在胎六年,應瑞而生。後出家學仙道,居雪山。因阿難將入滅,時山河大地六種震動。尊者同五百仙人禮阿難足,而跪請曰:「我於長老,當證佛法,願垂度脫。」阿難即變恒河為金地,為說大法曰:「昔如來以正法眼付大迦葉,轉付於我,我今付汝。」尊者既得法,降二火龍,以建梵宮,轉大法輪。後付法與優波 多,即隱罽賓國象白山,現十八變火光三昧,用焚其身。

白話解釋


The Fourth Patriarch, The Venerable Upagupta
四祖優婆毱多尊者

His name was Upagupta, and calling him venerable is our way of showing respect for him. The Venerable One was from the country of Pataliputra, his place of birth. His clan name was Shudra. He was of the Shudra clan. When he was seventeen, he offered himself to the Third Patriarch as one who has left the home-life. He went to the Third Patriarch, the Venerable Shanakavasa, and sought to leave the home-life. The Patriarch asked him, "How old are you?"
He answered, "Seventeen." He replied to the Patriarch Shanakavasa, "I am seventeen years old."
The Patriarch replied, "Is your body seventeen, or is your nature seventeen?" The Third Patriarch said, "Is your body seventeen or is your original nature seventeen?" Now most children would have answered, "I am seventeen years old, so my body is seventeen." But he didn’t answer this question directly.
Instead he answered, "Your hair has already turned white. Is your hair white or is your mind white?" He said, "Is it the case that your hair has turned white or has your mind turned white?"
The Patriarch said, "My hair is white, not my mind." He said, "My hair has turned white, not my mind."
After the Patriarch said this, Upagupta answered, "My body is seventeen, not my nature." He answered, "My body has been around for seventeen years, but my nature does not increase or decrease. Therefore this nature cannot be seventeen or eighteen." The Patriarch knew he was a Dharma vessel. Although his answer was light-hearted, the Third Patriarch still thought it was principled, so he knew he was a Dharma vessel, a person who could choose appropriate Dharmas.
Accordingly he let fall his hair and he received the complete precepts. After a short time the Third Patriarch shaved his head and he received the complete precepts. Then he told him, "In the past the Thus Come One transmitted the unsurpassed Dharma Eye to Kashyapa." The Patriarch said, "I have the Right Dharma Eye Treasury." What is the Right Dharma Eye Treasury." It is the Dharma-door of the mind seal: one mind seals the other; it is wordless. The Buddha passed the Right Dharma Eye Treasury on to Mahakasyapa, Great Kasyapa. "It was passed down. Kasyapa gave it to Ananda, and Ananda gave it to me?" This is the meaning of passed down. "...to me. And now I transmit it to you. Now I am passing this Right Dharma Eye Treasury on to you. Do not let it perish. In your travels do not let it perish."
After the Venerable One obtained the Dharma, he traveled to the appropriate directions, transforming. He went everywhere teaching and transforming living beings. The demon places quaked. Everything he did was true; he followed the proper Dharma, so the demon palaces quaked. Papima was terrified. Papima is another name for a demon king, who was worried and terrified.
Later he met Dhritaka. Dhritaka is the name of the Fifth Patriarch. He leapt into space. He jumped into space and manifested the eighteen transformations. With the eighteen transformations, one emits water from the top of one’s body and fire from the bottom, or water from the bottom of one’s body and fire from the top. One can lie down, sit, or stand in space, just as if one were supported by an invisible space-platform. Then he sat in full lotus and departed. After he manifested the eighteen transformations, he sat in his scat in full lotus and departed. His time had come so he entered Nirvana.

尊者,吒利國人也,姓首陀。年十七,投三祖出家。祖問:「汝年幾何?」答曰:「十七。」祖曰:「汝身十七耶?性十七耶?」答曰:「師髮已白,為髮白耶?心白耶?」祖曰:「我髮白,非心白也。」答曰:「我身十七,非性十七也。」祖知是法器,遂為落髮受具。告之曰:「昔如來以無上法眼付囑迦葉,展轉相授,而至於我。我今付汝,勿令斷絕。」尊者得法已,隨方行化,魔宮震動,波旬愁怖。後得提多迦已,遂踴身虛空,呈十八變,復坐,跏趺而逝。

白話解釋


The Fifth Patriarch, The Venerable Dhirtaka
五祖提多迦尊者

The Venerable One was from Magadha. When he was born his father dreamed that golden sunlight illumined heaven and earth.
It was as if there were a golden sun dazzling heaven and earth. When he grew up he met the fourth patriarch and sought to issue the home-life. He beseeched the fourth patriarch to allow him to leave home.
The Patriarch said, the fourth patriarch said to him, is it your body, which leaves home or your mind? Is it your body that wants to leave home or is it your mind that wants to leave home?
He answered saying, "My seeking to leave home is not for the sake of my body or mind. It is not my body that leaves home nor is it my mind; it's not because of these that I want to leave the home life."
"If not the body or mind, then who leaves home? If you aren't leaving home for the sake of your body or mind then ultimately who is it who is leaving home?"
He answered saying, "What leaves home is not the self nor the things belonging to the self. It's just that the mind originally is not produced on extinguished. The lack of production or extinction off the mind is the constant Way. That's the way all Buddhas are, their minds are not produced or extinguished. The mind is without form or appearance. That's the way its substance is."
The Patriarch said, "In the future you will have a great awakening. In the future you will become greatly enlightened. Your mind of itself will magically penetrate. When you become enlightened your mind will have a special understanding." And then he shaved his head.
He received the complete precepts and was transmitted the great Dharma. After he received the complete precepts he was given the great Dharma. After the Venerable One obtained the Dharma, once it was transmitted to him, he traveled and taught in Central India and transmitted the Dharma to Micchaka, the sixth patriarch. Then he ascended into empty space and performed the eighteen transformations—from the top of his body he emitted the fire and from his lower body he emitted water; from the top of his body he emitted water from his lower body and he emitted fire; he sat, stood, and laid down in emptiness and manifested all kinds of such inconceivable states.
He entered the firelight samadhi and burned his own body. He used the fire of samadhi to burn himself up.

尊者,摩伽陀國人也。生時,父夢金日照曜天地。長遇四祖,求出家。祖曰:「汝身出家,心出家耶?」答曰:「我求出家,非為身心。」祖曰:「不為身心,誰復出家?」答曰:「夫出家者,無我我故,即心不生滅。心不生滅,即是常道,諸佛亦然。心無形相,其體亦然。」祖曰:「汝當大悟,心自靈通。」即為剃度受具,付以大法。尊者得法已,行化至中印土,轉付法與彌遮迦。乃踴身虛空,作十八變,火光三昧,自焚其身。

白話解釋


The Sixth Patriarch, The Venerable Micchaka
六祖彌遮迦尊者

The Venerable One was from central India. He first studied the dharmas of the immortals (Skt. rsi Chin. –hsien) When the Fifth Patriarch [The Venerable Dhritaka, see VBS, #91] went to his country, he gazed with awe upon him and bowed, saying, "In the distant past, long ago, I was born together with you, Master, in a Brahma Heaven. I met with an immortal who transmitted to me the dharmas of immortals. You, Master, met a Buddhist disciples and thus cultivated Dhyana. Our retributions have sent us down different paths now for six aeons."
The [Fifth] Patriarch answered him saying, "We have been apart for many, many aeons; this is true and not false. But now you can cast aside the deviant and return to the orthodox, and enter the Buddha-vehicle."
The Venerable One replied, "It's lucky that we met today. Could it be because of anything other than causal affinities from former lives? I pray that the Master will be compassionate and lead me to liberation." The Patriarch immediately shaved his head and transmitted the complete precepts to him, and instructed him with the Great Dharma.
Having obtained the Dharma, the Venerable One went on his way, teaching living beings, until he arrived in Northern India, where he instructed the Dharma to Vasumitra. He then entered the Lion-Sprint Samadhi, and his body rose up to the height of seven Tala Trees. He then returned to his seat and immolated himself [in the fire of true samadhi].

尊者,中印土人。初學仙法,因五祖至彼國,尊者瞻禮,曰:「昔與師同生梵天,我遇仙人授我仙法,師逢佛子修習禪那。自此,報分殊途,已經六劫。」祖曰:「支離累劫,誠哉不虛!今可捨邪歸正,以入佛乘?」尊者曰:「今幸相遇,非宿緣耶?願師慈悲,令我解脫。」祖即與剃度授具,付以大法。尊者得法已,遊化至北天竺國,付法與婆須密。即入師子奮迅三昧,踴身高七多羅樹,卻復本座,化火自焚。

白話解釋


The Seventh Patriarch, The Venerable Vasumitra
七祖婆須密尊者

The Venerable One was a native of Northern India. While the Sixth Patriarch was traveling and teaching, upon seeing him, the Venerable One, holding a wine jug in his hand, stopped him and asked, "Where has the Master come from, and where does he wish to go?" The Patriarch replied, "I've come from the self-nature, and wish to go nowhere." The Venerable One said, "Do you recognize the object I have in my hand?" The Patriarch said, "It is an offensive vessel carried by a pure person." The Venerable One said, "Does the Master recognize me?" The Patriarch replied, "I do not recognize, and what recognizes is not me."
Afterwards he had him put on robes, shaved his head, transmitted to him the complete precepts, and handed the Great Dharma on to him. After the Venerable One had obtained the Dharma, he traveled and taught, arriving at the country of Kamalanka, where he carried out Buddhist activities on a large scale. He handed the Dharma on to Buddhanandi, and then entered the Compassionate Mind Samadhi. Next he came out of samadhi and instructed the assembly saying, "The Dharma I've obtained is non-existent; for if one recognizes the Buddha Ground, one leaves existence and non-existence behind." After saying that, he re-entered samadhi, and showed forth Nirvana.

尊者,北天竺國人也。因六祖遊化,見尊者手持酒器,逆而問曰:「師何方來?欲往何所?」祖曰:「從自心來,欲往無處。」尊者曰:「識我手中物否?」祖曰:「此是觸器,而負淨者。」尊者曰:「師識我否?」祖曰:「我即不識,識即非我。」後為披薙圓戒,付以大法。尊者得法已,行化至迦摩羅國,廣興佛事。後付法於佛陀難提,即入慈心三昧。復起,示眾曰:「我所得法,而非有故。若識佛地,離有無故。」語已,還入三昧,示涅槃。

白話解釋


The Eighth Patriarch, The Venerable Buddhanandi
八祖佛陀難提尊者

The Venerable One was from the country of Kamala, in India. He had a flesh cowl on his crown. He was born with this flesh cowl, which can be seen clearly in the picture of him. His eloquence was unobstructed. No matter who spoke with him, they could not outtalk him. He always triumphed.
When he first met the seventh patriarch, the Venerable Vasumita, they had a discussion. The Patriarch said, the seventh patriarch said to him, "The theory is not the meaning; the meaning is not theoretical." Theoretical suppositions are not the true meaning; the true meaning is not theoretical. If you reflect upon theoretical discussions, they held no real meaning. If you use the thinking process to investigate true principle, you will not find the true meaning.
The Venerable One knew that the Patriarch’s meaning was victorious. Buddhanandi knew that the seventh patriarch’s principles were higher than his own; because genuine principle cannot be expressed. And with his heart full of respect he said, "I wish to seek the Way. I want to seek the Way from the Patriarch. And be saturated with the flavor of sweet dew."
The Patriarch shaved his head and administered the complete precepts. He transmitted the great Dharma, the Dharma of the Mind Seal. In a verse he said,
With a mind like the realm of emptiness
I explain a Dharma like emptiness.
When you certify to emptiness
There is nothing, which is, nor is not Dharma.
At that time there is no meaning which can be discussed.
After the Venerable One obtained the Dharma he led a multitude with his practice and teaching. When he reached the country of T’i Ch’ieh he transmitted the Dharma to Buddhamitra, the ninth patriarch. Immediately he manifested spiritual transformations. He ascended into empty space and displayed the eighteen transformations. Then he returned to his seat, sat erect and departed. He sat in full lotus posture and went off to rebirth. Thereupon the assembly made a precious stupa and placed his body in it.

尊者,迦摩羅國人也。頂有肉髻,辯才無礙。初見七祖論義,祖曰:「仁者!論即不義,義即不論。若擬論義,終非義論。」尊者知祖義勝,心即欽服,曰:「吾願求道,霑甘露味。」祖遂與剃度授具,付以大法,偈曰:「心同虛空界,示等虛空法;證得虛空時,無是無非法。」尊者得法已,領眾行化至提伽國,轉付法於伏馱密多,即現神變,卻復本座,端然示寂。爾時眾建寶塔,葬其全身。

白話解釋


The Ninth Patriarch, The Venerable Buddhamitra
九祖伏馱密多尊者

The Venerable One was from the country of T’i Ch’ieh He was over fifty years old before he spoke or walked. Perhaps he was fifty and perhaps he was fifteen, at any rate, he didn’t talk and he just sat there. One day he saw the Eighth Patriarch who said, "You are truly my disciple. The Venerable One then got up, bowed, and said. Finally, when he saw the Eighth Patriarch he got up from his long sit and spoke for the first time. "Father and Mother are not my relatives; who are my true relatives? All Buddhas are not the Way; who is the true Way?" Who is a Good and Wise Advisor?
"Kinship with Father and Mother
can't compare with speaking from your heart.
Uniting with all Buddha's minds
comes through practice of the Way."
You speak from your mind and that relationship is closer than Father and Mother. You speak from your heart; parents can’t compare to the heart. You cultivate and unite with the Way. The Buddha is people’s minds; people’s minds are the Buddha.
After the Venerable One, the Ninth Patriarch Buddha-mitra, heard that verse he took seven steps.
The Patriarch said, "In the past this disciple met Buddhas and made vows; but because his parents found it hard to let go of him, he didn't speak and didn't walk. In the past he met Buddhas and vowed to leave home but he was afraid his Father and Mother wouldn’t let him, so he wouldn’t talk and wouldn’t walk. The Elder followed him to leave home and the Patriarch shaved his head and transmitted the complete precepts to him. The Eighth Patriarch heard him speak and let him leave home. He gave him the precepts and transmitted the Wonderful Dharma of the Mind Seal. He willed him the Great Dharma. After the Venerable One obtained the Dharma he went to Central India where he practiced and taught. He in turn transmitted the Dharma to "Difficult to Conquer" the Tenth Patriarch. Then he immediately entered the Extinction Samadhi and manifested Nirvana.

尊者,提伽國人。年已五十,口未嘗言,足未曾履。一日,見八祖所說:「真吾弟子!」尊者即起禮拜問曰:「父母非我親,誰是最親者?諸佛非我道,誰是最道者?」祖曰:「汝言與心親,父母非可比;汝行與道合,諸佛心即是。」尊者聞偈已,便行七步。祖曰:「此子昔曾值佛發願,慮父母難捨,故不言不履耳!」長者遂捨出家。祖乃薙落授具,付以大法。尊者得法已,至中印土行化,轉付法於難生。即入滅盡三昧,而般涅槃。

白話解釋


The Tenth Patriarch, The Venerable "Ribs" Parshva
十祖脅尊者

The Venerable One was born in Central India. He was called "Ribs" because he never lay down to sleep. He sat upright in the meditation posture. When his father took him to see the Ninth Patriarch, the Venerable Buddha-mitra, his father said, "This child was in the womb for sixty years, and so we called him 'Hard to Bear."'
In China, Lao-tzu was in his mother's womb for eighty years! Since he was so old when he was born, they called him, "The Old One," (Lao-tzu).
"An immortal once said," his father continued, "that this child was no ordinary person, and that in the future he would be a vessel for the Dharma. Now that he has met the Venerable One, let him leave the home-life."
The Patriarch then cut his hair and transmitted to him the complete precepts. During the Karmadana ritual, when he was being questioned three times on various matters, an auspicious light shone on his chair and twenty-one sarira manifested in response. From that time on, he was vigorous and forgot his fatigue. His ribs never touched the mat and so they called him the Venerable Ribs. Later, the Patriarch transmitted the Great Dharma to him, the Mind Seal Dharma-door. When the Venerable One had received the Dharma he traveled about teaching living beings. When he arrived in Pataliputra, he transmitted the Dharma to Punyayashas. He then manifested spiritual transformations, the eighteen transformations of an Arhat, and entered Nirvana. He immolated himself in the fire of samadhi. The four assemblies, the Bhiksus, Bhiksunis, Upasakas) Upasikas, gathered his sarira in baskets and built stupas for him everywhere.

尊者,中印土人。因隨父謁九祖,父曰:「此子處胎六十歲,因名難生。嘗有仙謂,此兒非凡,當為法器。今遇尊者,可令出家。」祖即為落髮授具。羯磨之際,祥光燭座,仍感舍利三七粒現前。自此精進忘疲,脅不至蓆,人遂號為脅尊者。後祖付以大法,尊者得法已,行化至華氏國,轉付法於富那夜奢。即現神變,而入涅槃,化火自焚。四眾各以衣裓盛舍利,隨處建塔。

白話解釋


The Eleventh Patriarch, The Venerable Punyayashas
十一祖富那夜奢尊者

The Venerable One was from "Flower Citadel." "Flower Citadel," Kusumpura, is a country in India. In the course of the Tenth Patriarch’s travels and teaching he reached this country. The Tenth Patriarch is the Venerable "Ribs" whose ribs never touched the mat. He came to that country of "Flower Citadel." I've never been to "Flower Citadel"; I don't know if any of you have or not. In general this is the ancient name of a city in India. Whether you know which one it is, is no great problem. It will be enough if you just remember he is not from China. Right? He's Indian. There's no need to go into the fact that "Flower Citadel," Kusumapura, was later called Pataliputra and is modern-day Patna. This is too much trouble. Don't spend your effort on that kind of work, looking up ancient things and looking up modern things, looking up and looking up until you die from looking up things. You think about it, isn't it this way? After you die of looking things up, you get reborn and start looking things up again. Reposing under a tree. He didn't want to retire in a room since his ribs didn't touch the mat, so he stayed outside, ate once a day at noon, and sat beneath a tree to rest. Pretty much like we do.
The Venerable One came and stood before him with his palms together. The Venerable One referred to here is the Eleventh Patriarch. He saw the Venerable Ribs sitting beneath a tree meditating and he went and stood as stiff as a board before the Master. I'm not slandering the Patriarch, that's really how he did it:
The Patriarch said: "Where have you come from?"
Answer: "My mind doesn’t go."
The Patriarch said: "Where do you dwell?"
Answer: "My mind doesn’t stop."
The Patriarch said: "You are unsettled?"
Answer: "That’s the way all Buddhas are."
The Patriarch said: "You are not all Buddhas."
Answer: "All Buddhas are not."
And with that, the Patriarch (Eleventh) spoke verses:
This ground has turned to gold.
Knowing in advance that a sage has come.
Sitting beneath the Bodhi tree
The flower of enlightenment blossomed.
The Patriarch (Tenth) knew his intent, shaved his head, and transmitted to him the complete precepts. Then he transmitted to him the Great Dharma, the wonderful Dharma of using the mind to seal the mind, which cannot be expressed in words. Another way of saying it is that it's just "this." If you know what "this" is, then you can cultivate the Way.
After the Venerable Master the Eleventh Patriarch got the Dharma he traveled and taught until he reached Varanasi. There he transmitted the Dharma to "Horse Cry," Ashvaghosha Bodhisattva. Then he manifested spiritual transformations, the eighteen transformations of an Arhat. And quietly completed the stillness. He was very clear, not the least bit muddled. Clear like a mirror. Clear like water that you can see into all the way down to the bottom. The assembly made a jeweled pagoda to enshrine his body.

尊者,華氏國人。因十祖行化至其國,憩一樹下。尊者適來,合掌前立。祖問:「汝從何來?」答曰:「我心非往。」祖曰:「汝何處住?」答曰:「我心非止。」祖曰:「汝不定耶?」答曰:「諸佛亦然。」祖曰:「汝非諸佛。」答曰:「諸佛亦非。」祖因說偈曰:「此地變金色,預知有聖至;當坐菩提樹,覺華而成已。」祖知其意,即為薙落授具,因付以大法。尊者得法已,行化至波羅奈國,轉付法於馬鳴,即現神變,湛然圓寂。眾建寶塔,閟其全身。

白話解釋


The Twelfth Patriarch, The Bodhisattva Ashvagosha
十二祖馬鳴大士

The Bodhisattva was from Varanasi. He visited the Eleventh Patriarch. He went to visit the Eleventh Patriarch, to bow to him and asked, "I wish to recognize the Buddha. What is he? I would like to recognize the Buddha. What is the Buddha?"
The Patriarch, the Eleventh Patriarch answered, "You wish to recognize the Buddha: it is your not recognizing. You wish to recognize the Buddha? He is just your not recognizing." He didn't know the Buddha. "If you want to recognize the Buddha, then you still don't recognize him." So he said, "In your wish to recognize the Buddha, the Buddha is your not recognizing. Your not recognizing is just the Buddha."
He, the Twelfth Patriarch, said, "Since I don't recognize the Buddha, how do I know it is?" He said, "Since I don't recognize the Buddha how am I to know that it is the Buddha?"
The Patriarch, the Eleventh one said, "Since you don’t recognize the Buddha, how do you know it is not?" He said, Since you do not recognize the Buddha, how do you know that your not knowing is not the Buddha?" The two of them were carrying on a debate. "Since you don't recognize the Buddha, how do you know this is not the Buddha?"
The Bodhisattva suddenly woke up. The Bodhisattva is Ashvagosha, who suddenly had penetrating insight; he woke up. To wake up means to cease sleeping, to get up. The Patriarch shaved his head and took him across. The Eleventh Patriarch shaved his head and saved him, and then said, "Before this person was the king of Vaishali who utilized his psychic powers. He was a king who used his powers of spiritual penetration and transformation: to divide his body into silkworms. He divided his body into many silkworms. And afterwards the populace obtained clothing. To start with the people in that country had no clothing, so he transformed into numerous silkworms which made a great amount of silk so they could have clothes. He was a horseman born in Central India. He lamented and was thus named "Horse Neigh," (Ashvagosha). He always neighed like a horse. He lamented like a neighing horse and was thus named Horse Neigh Bodhisattva.
"The Thus Come One predicted, previously the Buddha had made a prediction, 'Six hundred years after my extinction there will be a worthy one who will take across immeasurable numbers of people. He will succeed me in the teaching.’ He is a person who will transmit the Mind Seal of all Buddhas. Now is just that time." The Eleventh Patriarch said this. He verified, "The present is just that time referred to by the Buddha." Accordingly he bestowed the Dharma upon him. He transmitted the Mind Seal Dharma to him.
After he met Kapimala, he entered the Aroused Dragon Samadhi. He entered the samadhi of an aroused dragon. He rose up into space. He leapt into space, like the mark of the sun disc, just like the sun, and manifested extinction. He perfected extinction, he entered Nirvana.

大士,波羅奈國人。謁十一祖,問曰:「我欲識佛,何者即是?」祖曰:「汝欲識佛,不識者是。」答曰:「佛既不識,焉知是乎?」祖曰:「既不識佛,焉知不是?」大士豁然省悟。祖為剃度,乃曰:「此人昔為毗舍利國王,運其神力,分身為蠶,國人得衣。後生中印土,馬人悲戀,因號馬鳴。如來記曰:『吾滅後六百年,當有賢者,度人無量,繼吾傳化』,今正是時。」遂付以法。後得迦毗摩羅,即入龍奮迅三昧,挺身空中,如日輪相,然後示滅。

白話解釋


The Thirteenth Patriarch, The Venerable Kapimala
十三祖迦毘摩羅尊者

The Venerable One came from the Flower Country. At first he was of an outside way sect and had mastered all kinds of debate. No matter what philosophical argument he was confronted with, he could win it. He had great spiritual powers.
When he first met the Twelfth Patriarch, he bowed and repented. The Patriarch asked him, "What is your name? How many are there in your retinue?" How many disciples do you have? The Patriarch wanted to know.
The Honored One answered, "My name is Kapimala and I have a retinue of three thousand."
The Patriarch said, "If you exerted your spiritual powers to their limit, what could you change into?"
He answered, "I could transform into the great sea and that would be no small matter!"
The Patriarch said, "Can you transform into the Sea of Nature?"
"What is the Sea of Nature?" he asked. How can I change into it if I don’t even know what it is? he wondered.
The Patriarch replied, "The mountains, the rivers, and the great earth are all established from it. Samadhi and the six penetrations are transformed from it as well."
After hearing this, the Honored One and all of his disciples asked to leave home and be taken across. The Patriarch found five hundred Arhats to transmit the Complete Precepts. Moreover, he bequeathed the Great Dharma to him; he transmitted the Mind Seal Dharma to him.
After receiving the Dharma he traveled west to India to teach and transmitted the Mind Seal Dharma to Dragon Tree (Nagarjuna). He transmitted the Mind Seal Dharma to Nagarjuna Bodhisattva. Then he manifested spiritual changes and transformed a fire, which burned his body. He displayed the fire of samadhi and cremated his body.

尊者,華氏國人。初為外道,通諸異論,有大神力。初見十二祖,作禮懺悔。祖問:「汝名誰?眷屬多少?」尊者曰:「我名迦毗摩羅,有三千眷屬。」祖曰:「盡汝神力,變化若何?」曰:「我化巨海,極為小事。」祖曰:「汝化性海得否?」曰:「何謂性海?我未嘗知。」祖曰:「山河大地,皆依建立;三昧六通,由玆變現。」尊者聞言,與徒眾俱求剃度。祖召五百羅漢,與授具戒,復以大法付之。得法已,遊化至西印土,轉付龍樹。即現神變,化火焚身。

白話解釋


The Fourteenth Patriarch, The Venerable Nagarjuna
十四祖龍樹菩薩

The Venerable One was from India. When the Thirteenth Patriarch, in the course of his traveling and teaching, reached the part of India where Nagarjuna was cultivating, the Venerable Nagarjuna went out to greet him with these words: "The deep mountains are so quiet and solitary, the abode of dragons and pythons. How is it that you, who are so virtuous, have strayed so far to come here? What brings you here?" The Patriarch said, "I am not venerable. I have come to see you, Worthy One." Nagarjuna thought to himself, "The Thirteenth Patriarch is lying when he denies he is venerable." The Patriarch knew what he was thinking, and Nagarjuna regretted it, apologizing for being so stupid. The Patriarch immediately transmitted the great Mind-to-Mind Seal to him, and Nagarjuna and the five hundred who were cultivating the Way with him, all received the complete precepts.
After obtaining the Dharma, the Venerable Nagarjuna traveled and taught. When he reached southern India, he found the people there preoccupied with the quest for rewards of heavenly blessings and unaware of how to seek the Buddhadharma. The Patriarch told them, the meaning of the Buddha Nature, and how their own nature was endowed with limitless meritorious qualities and blessed rewards. When the multitudes heard that Dharma, they all stopped seeking blessings and turned away from the small toward the great. Right where he was sitting the Patriarch made his body look like the orb of the full moon. The Fifteenth Patriarch-to-be, Kanadeva was in the crowd and remarked, "The Venerable One is showing us the substance and characteristics of the Buddha Nature." Nagarjuna thereupon transmitted the Dharma to Kanadeva and entered the Moon's Orb Samadhi, extensively displaying spiritual transformations. Immediately afterwards, he entered extinction.

尊者,西天竺國人。因十三祖行化至彼,龍樹出迎曰:「深山孤寂,龍蟒所居;大德至尊,何枉神足?」祖曰:「吾非至尊,來訪賢者。」龍樹默念,祖知其意。龍樹悔謝,祖即與度脫,及五百龍眾俱,授具戒,付以大法。得法已,行化至南印土。彼國之人多信福業,祖為說佛性義,眾聞,悉回初心。復於座,現身如滿月輪。眾中有迦那提婆曰:「此是尊者,現佛性體相,以示我等。」後付法於迦那提婆已,入月輪三昧,廣現神變,凝然示寂。

白話解釋


The Fifteenth Patriarch, The Venerable Kanadeva
十五祖迦那提婆尊者

The Venerable One, from Southern India, first sought blessings and enjoyed debate; later he went to pay his respects to the Patriarch Nagarjuna. The Patriarch knew he was a Wise One, so he first sent a messenger and had him place a bowlful of water before the Venerable One's seat. The Venerable One saw it, tossed a needle in it, and came, delighted to join the assembly. The Patriarch then spoke Dharma for him. Without arising from his seat, he manifested the appearance of the Full Moon, and one could only hear his voice, one could not see his form. The Venerable One said to the assembly, "With this auspicious portent the Master shows us the Buddha nature. It means that the Buddhadharma is not in sounds or forms. Then the Patriarch transmitted to him the Great Dharma.
After the Venerable One obtained the Dharma, he traveled and taught until he reached the country of Kapila, where he transmitted the Dharma to Rahulata. Then he entered the Swift Samadhi, emitted eight lights, and departed to stillness.

尊者,南天竺國人。初求福業,兼樂辯論。後謁龍樹祖,祖知是智人,先遣侍者,以滿缽水,置於座前。尊者見之,即以一針投之而進,欣然契會。祖即為說法,不起於座,現月輪相,唯聞其聲,不見其形。尊者語眾曰:「今此瑞者,師現佛性,表說法非聲色也。」祖即為剃度,付以大法。尊者得法後,行化至迦毗羅國,轉付羅睺羅多,即入奮迅三昧,放八光而歸寂焉。

白話解釋


The Sixteenth Patriarch, The Venerable Rahulata
十六祖羅睺羅多尊者

The Venerable One was from the region of Kapila. His father was named Fan Mwo Ching Te. Outside their home was a tree on which grew mushroom-like fungus that was delicious. Only Ching Te and his second son, Rahulata, picked and ate it. The more the fungus was harvested, the more it produced.
When the Fifteenth Patriarch came to their household, he said, "When you are 81 years old, the trees will bear no more fungus."
In response to his comment, Ching Te said to the Patriarch, "This disciple is old and decrepit and would be of no service to the Master. But I'd like to relinquish my second son so he can follow the Master and leave the home-life."
The Patriarch said, "In the past, the Thus Come One predicted that in the second five hundred years this child would become a great teaching host. This meeting confirms that prophecy." Then the child's head was shaved and he attended upon the Master. Later he was entrusted with the Great Dharma.
After receiving the Dharma, he traveled and taught until he reached the city of Sravasti where he transmitted the Dharma to Sanghanandi. Then he sat at ease and returned to stillness.

尊者,迦毗羅國人,父名梵摩淨德。家有園樹,生耳如菌,味甚美。唯淨德與次子羅睺羅多得取而食,隨取隨長。因十五祖至其家,曰:「汝年八十一,此樹不生耳。」淨德聞,彌加嘆服。且曰:「弟子衰老,不能事師,願捨次子,隨師出家。」祖曰:「昔如來記此子,當第二五百年,為大教主。今之相遇,蓋符宿因。」即與剃度,執侍,後付以大法。得法已,行化至室羅筏城,轉付與僧伽難提,即安座歸寂。

白話解釋


The Seventeenth Patriarch, The Venerable Sanghanandi
十七祖僧伽難提尊者

The Venerable One was born in Sravasti where he was the crown prince. When he was seven years old he grew tired of worldly pleasures and asked to leave the home-life. One evening he came to a large rock cave and found the Sixteenth Patri­arch inside meditating, and he also sat down to meditate. Twenty-one days later, when they arose from samadhi, the Patriarch asked, "When your body is in samadhi is your mind in samadhi?"
"Body and mind are both in samadhi." The Patriarch replied, "If body and mind are both in samadhi, how can there be a leaving and an entering?"
"Although there is a leaving and an entering, the mark of samadhi is not lost."
The Patriarch questioned the Venerable One closely and then crossed him over. With his right hand he took his bowl to the Brahma Palace and brought back delicious food. After they both had eaten, he used his right hand to enter the Vajra Wheel Limit. Holding a lapis lazuli vessel filled with sweet dew, he transmitted the great Dharma to the Venerable One. Afterwards he went to Magadha where he met Gayashata. With his right hand he reached up and grabbed the branch of a tree and entered the stillness.

尊者,室羅筏城寶莊王子也。七歲即厭世樂,願請出家。一夕,至大巖石窟,晏寂其中。十六祖至彼,見安坐入定,祖俟之。三七日,方從定起。祖問:「汝身定耶?心定耶?」曰:「身心俱定。」祖曰:「身心俱定,何有出入?」曰:「雖有出入,不失定相。」祖詰之,尊者豁然,即求度脫。祖以右手擎缽,至梵宮取香飯,與尊者同食;尊者以右手,入金剛輪際,取甘露水,以琉璃器持至。祖付以大法。後至摩提國,得伽耶舍多,即右手攀樹而化。

白話解釋


The Eighteenth Patriarch, The Venerable Gayashata Of Magadha
十八祖伽耶舍多尊者

The Venerable One was from Magadha. When the Seventeenth Patriarch reached that country, he saw a pure youth holding a mirror who approached the Patriarch.
The Patriarch asked, "How old are you?"
"A hundred years."
"The Patriarch said, "You're still a youngster, why do you say you're a hundred years old?"
The youth replied, "I do not understand principle so I may as well be a hundred."
"Your potential is excellent." noted the Patriarch.
The youth continued, "The Buddha said, 'If a person lives to be a hundred but has not understood the Buddha's potential, he may as well have lived but a single day and died.'"
Then the wind blew and the temple bell sounded. The Patriarch asked, "Does the bell ring or does the wind ring?"
The Venerable One answered, "Neither the wind nor the bell rings; my mind rings.
The Patriarch said, "And what is the mind?"
"Complete stillness," he answered.
The Patriarch praised him, "Good indeed, good indeed," and transmitted to him the Great Dharma.
Afterward the Venerable One met Kumarata and ascended into space where he displayed the eighteen transformations, entered the Firelight Samadhi, and cremated his own body.

尊者,摩提國人。十七祖至其國,見一童子持鑑造祖前,祖問:「汝幾歲耶?」曰:「百歲。」祖曰:「汝年尚幼,何言百歲?」童曰:「我不會理,正百歲耳。」祖曰:「汝善機耶?」童曰:「佛言:若人生百歲,不會諸佛機;未若生一日,而得決了之。」時聞風吹殿鈴聲,祖問曰:「鈴鳴耶?風鳴耶?」尊者曰:「非風鈴鳴,我心鳴耳。」祖曰:「心復誰乎?」答曰:「俱寂靜故。」祖曰:「善哉!善哉!」付以大法。尊者後得鳩摩羅多,即踴身虛空,現十八變,火光三昧,自焚其身。

白話解釋


The Nineteenth Patriarch, The Venerable kimarata
十九祖鳩摩羅多尊者

The Venerable One was a native of Kushana. When the Eighteenth Patriarch arrived the Venerable One asked him, "What group do you belong to?" The Patriarch replied, "I am a disciple of the Buddha." When he heard the name "Buddha", he immediately became alarmed and shut the door. The Patriarch kept knocking on the door for a long time.
The Venerable One said, "There is no one home at all."
The Patriarch said, "Who, then, is answering there is no one?" When the Venerable One heard those words, he knew this was an extraordinary person, and so he opened the door and let him in.
The Patriarch said, "Long ago the World Honored One predicted that one thousand years after his extinction a great Master would appear in the country of Kushana, who would carry on and magnify the esoteric teaching. Now that you have met me, take advantage of this auspicious turn of fate." he had him leave home and receive the complete precepts, and transmitted the great Dharma to him. The Venerable, after receiving the Dharma, later transmitted it to Jayata. Then, while on his seat, he used his fingernails to scratch the impression of a blooming red lotus upon his face, emitted great light, which lit up the four assemblies and entered extinction.

尊者,大月氏國人。因十八祖至,尊者問曰:「是何徒眾?」祖曰:「是佛弟子。」彼聞佛號,心神竦然,即時閉戶。祖良久扣其門,尊者曰:「此舍無人。」祖曰:「答無者誰?」尊者聞語,知是異人,遂開關延接。祖曰:「昔世尊記曰:『滅後一千年,有大士出現於月氏國,紹隆玄化。』今汝值我,應斯嘉運。」於是出家授具,付以大法。尊者得法已,後得闍夜多,即於座上,以指爪剺面,如紅蓮開,放大光明,照曜四眾,而入寂滅。

白話解釋


The Twentieth Patriarch, The Venerable Jayata
二十祖闍夜多尊者

The Venerable One was from Northern India. He heard the Nineteenth Patriarch speak and all his doubts were cleared up immediately. The Patriarch said, Although you already believe, you do not understand that karma comes about because of delusion; one is deluded because of the discriminating consciousness; the discriminating consciousness is based on unen1ightenment and unenlightenment comes from our minds. Basically, the mind is pure, without any production or destruction, without any creation or retribution, and without any victory or defeat. It is quiet and still--efficacious and spontaneous. If you enter this Dharma-door you can become identical with all Buddhas. All good and evil and conditioned and unconditioned things are like a dream or an illusion."
The Venerable One accepted this teaching and then sought to leave the home life. He received the Complete Precepts.
The Patriarch then transmitted the Great Dharma to him. After receiving it, he went to Rajagrha. He passed the Dharma on to Vasubandu. In his seat he peacefully returned to stillness.

尊者,北天竺國人。聞十九祖語,頓釋所疑。祖曰:「汝雖已信,而未明業從惑生,惑因識有,識依不覺,不覺依心。心本清淨,無生滅、無造作、無報應、無勝負,寂寂然、靈靈然。汝若入此法門,可與諸佛同矣。一切善惡,有為無為,皆如夢幻。」尊者領旨,即求出家,受具。祖付以大法,得法已,至羅閱城,轉付婆修盤頭,即於座,奄然歸寂。

白話解釋


The Twenty-First Patriarch, The Venerable Vasubandhu
二十一祖婆修盤頭尊者

The Venerable One was a native of the City of Rajagriha. He ate only one meal a day and never lay down to sleep. In the six periods of the day and night he bowed to the Buddhas. The assembly took refuge with him. The Twentieth Patriarch came to where he was and asked the assembly, "Can this ascetic attain the Buddha Way through cultivation of Brahma conduct?"
The assembly replied, "Our Teacher is so vigorous, how could he fail to?"
The Patriarch said, "Your teacher is far from the Way!"
The assembly asked, "What virtuous conduct has the Venerable One amassed that he ridicules our Teacher?"
The Patriarch replied, "I neither seek the Way, nor am I upside-down. I neither bow to the Buddha nor despise him. I neither sit for long periods, nor am I lazy. I neither eat only once a day, nor eat at random. When the mind does not hope for anything, that is called the Way."
When the Venerable One heard that, he brought forth non-outflow wisdom. The Patriarch then transmitted the Dharma to him. Afterwards he went to the Country of Magadha where he met Manorhita. He then made his body rise to a height of half a yojana and settled as if on a mountain peak. The four-fold assembly gazed up at him and begged him to return. He sat in full lotus and departed.

尊者,羅閱城人。一食不臥,六時禮佛,為眾所歸。二十祖至彼,問其眾曰:「此頭陀能修梵行,可得佛道乎?」眾曰:「我師精進,何故不可?」祖曰:「汝師與道遠矣!」眾曰:「尊者蘊何德行,而譏我師?」祖曰:「我不求道,亦不顛倒。我不禮佛,亦不輕慢。我不長坐,亦不懈怠。我不一食,亦不雜食。心無所希,名之曰道。」尊者聞已,發無漏智,祖乃付法。後至那提國,得摩拏羅,即踴身高半由旬,屹然而住。四眾仰瞻虔請,復坐,跏趺而逝。

白話解釋


The Twenty-Second Patriarch, The Venerable Manorhita
二十二祖摩拏羅尊者

The Venerable One was from Nagara and the son of King "Constantly Free and Easy." When he was thirteen he met Vasubandhu. The Patriarch came to his country and the king asked him, "What is the difference between here and the land of Rajagrha?"
The Patriarch answered, "In that land in the past three Buddhas came into the World. Now in the King's country there are two masters who transform and guide others."
The king asked, "Who are these two masters?"
The Patriarch replied, "The Buddha predicted that during the second period of 500 years, there will be two with psychic powers who are great scholars who will leave the home-life and continue the tra­dition of sages. The King's second son Manorhita is one, and although my virtue is slight, I am the second."
"According to what you say," the King replied, "I, should give over this son to become a Sramana."
The Patriarch said, "Very fine. The great King follows the Buddha's intent." Then he shaved the son's head, gave him the Complete Precepts, and entrusted him with the Great Dharma. After the Honored One received the Dharma, he entrusted it to Padmaratna, whereupon he sat in full lotus and disappeared.

尊者,那提國常自在王之子也。年三十,會婆修祖至彼國。王問祖曰:「羅閱城土與此何異?」祖曰:「彼土曾有三佛出世,今王國有二師化導。」王曰:「二師者誰?」祖曰:「佛記第二五百年,有二神力大士,出家繼聖。即王之次子摩拏羅,是其一也;吾雖德薄,敢當其一。」王曰:「誠如尊者所言,當捨此子作沙門。」祖曰:「善哉大王,能遵佛旨。」即與薙落授具,付以大法。尊者得法後,付鶴勒那,即跏趺奄化。

白話解釋


The Twenty-Third Patriarch, The Venerable Haklena
二十三祖鶴勒那尊者

The Venerable One was a native of the Country of Tokhara. He left home at the age of twenty two. Flocks of cranes used to follow the Venerable constantly. He asked the Twenty Second Patriarch, "What method can I use to liberate them?"
The Patriarch said, "I have an unsurpassed Dharma Jewel. You should listen to it, accept it, and use it to transform beings to the boundaries of the future." He then spoke this verse:
"The mind follows states and turns.
The place of turning can truly be obscure.
If following the flow one can recognize, one obtains the nature.
One then has no delights, and also has no worries."
When the flocks of cranes heard that verse, they flew up in the air calling out their cries, and disappeared.
The Venerable One then obtained the Dharma and traveled teaching until he reached Central India. There he transmitted the Dharma to Aryasimha, manifested the eighteen transformations, and returned to stillness.

尊者,月氏國人。年二十二出家,常有鶴眾相隨。尊者問二十二祖曰:「以何方便,令彼解脫?」祖曰:「我有無上法寶,汝當聽受,化未來際。」而說偈曰:「心隨萬境轉,轉處實能幽;隨流認得性,無喜亦無憂。」時鶴眾聞偈,飛鳴而去。尊者既得法,行化至中印土,轉付師子,即現十八變而歸寂。

白話解釋


The Twenty-Fourth Patriarch, The Venerable Lion (Aryasimha)
二十四祖師子尊者

The Venerable One was from Central India. He asked the Twenty-third Patriarch, "What mind should I use to seek the Way?"
The Patriarch said, "When seeking the Way, do not use any mind."
The Venerable One asked, "If I do not use the mind, who does the Buddha's work?"
The Patriarch answered, "If there is using, there is not merit and virtue, but if there is no doing, that is the Buddha's work."
Accordingly he was entrusted with the Great Dharma. Then he traveled to Kubha and passed the Dharma to Basiasita. The king there brought his sword to where the Venerable One was and asked, "Has the Master seen that the skandhas are empty?"
He answered, "I have seen that the skandhas are empty."
The king again asked, "Has he escaped birth and death?"
He replied, "I have escaped birth and death."
The king said, "Since you have escaped birth and death, can you give me your head?"
He replied, "My body does not exist. Why should I covet my head?" Then the king drew his sword and cut off the Venerable One's head. A white milky substance spirited several feet in the air, and the king's right arm suddenly fell to the ground.

尊者,中印土人。問二十三祖曰:「我欲求道,當用何心?」祖曰:「汝欲求道,無所用心。」曰:「既無用心,誰作佛事?」祖曰:「汝若有用,即非功德;汝若無作,即是佛事。」因付以大法。遊化至罽賓國,轉付法與婆舍斯多。後王秉劍至尊者所,問曰:「師得蘊空否?」曰:「已得蘊空。」王曰:「離生死否?」曰:「已離生死。」王曰:「既離生死,可施我頭。」曰:「我身非有,何吝於頭!」王即揮刃,斷尊者首,白乳湧高數尺,王之右臂旋亦墮地。

白話解釋


The Twenty-Fifth Indian Patriarch, The Venerable Basiasita
二十五祖婆舍斯多尊者

The Venerable One was a native of the country of Kubha. To begin with, his mother dreamed she obtained a magic sword, and then became pregnant. When he was born, he held his left hand in a fist.
His father took him to see the Patriarch Arya-Simha ("Lion") to ask him why. The Patriarch took him by the hand and said, "You can return my pearl." The Venerable One accordingly opened his hand and held up a pearl. He followed him and renounced the home life. The Patriarch shaved his head and crossed him over, saying,
"I, your teacher, secretly have the Proper Dharma Eye Treasury handed down from the Arhat, which I transmit to you."
After he obtained the Dharma, he hid away in mountain valleys. The King Heavenly Virtue invited him to receive offerings. Afterwards, the Prince Supreme Virtue, who then firmly believed in the dharmas of externalist ways, caused him difficulties. The Venerable One took out the robe and showed it to him. The King ordered the robe burned. The robe appeared to have the five colors and remained fresh as ever, while the firewood was used up. The King then felt remorse, and bowed to him.
Later, he transmitted the Dharma robe to Punyamitra, then displayed spiritually transformed fire and cremated himself. On level ground his sharira were one foot high.

尊者,罽賓國人。初,母夢得神劍,因而有孕。既誕,拳其左手。父引見師子祖,問其故,祖即以手接曰:「可還我珠。」尊者遽開手奉珠,遂捨出家。祖為薙度曰:「吾師密有懸記,罹難。正法眼藏,轉付與汝。」得法後,潛隱山谷,國王天德,迎請供養。後王太子德勝即位,信外道法,致難尊者,出衣示之。王命焚衣,五色相鮮,薪盡如故,王即追悔,致禮。後付法衣於密多,即現神變,化火自焚。平地舍利,可高一尺。

白話解釋


The Twenty-Sixth Patriarch, The Venerable Purnamitra
二十六祖不如密多尊者

The Venerable One was from southern India, the son of King "Heavenly Virtue." He went before the (15th) Patriarch Basiasita asking to leave home. The Patriarch asked him, "You want to leave home? What for?"
Purnamitra replied, "If I leave home, it won’t be for worldly matters."
The Patriarch replied, "What matter will it be for?"
Purnamitra replied, "It will be for the Buddha matter."
The Patriarch transmitted the great Dharma to Purnamitra who then went about teaching living beings. In his travels he came to eastern India. The King there was named "Solid." He had put into a high position one of outside ways. This long-nailed Brahmin made appear by transformation a large mountain on the top of the Venerable One’s head. The Venerable one flicked his finger and suddenly the mountain was on top of the heads of the people in the court. They were all afraid and prostrated themselves before him. The Venerable One then flicked his finger again and the mountain disappeared. He proclaimed the Dharma to the King, enabling him to go towards the True Vehicle. Later, (he transmitted the Dharma to) Prajnatara and took his leave of the king saying, "I have transformed those with whom I had conditions. I shall return to still extinction." Then he returned to his throne, sat in full lotus, and left this world.

尊者,南印土天德王之次子。投婆舍祖出家,祖問曰:「汝欲出家,當為何事?」曰:「我若出家,不為俗事。」祖曰:「當為何事?」曰:「當為佛事。」祖付以大法。遊化至東印土,彼王名堅固,奉外道師長爪梵志,即以幻法,化大山於尊者頂上。尊者指之,忽在彼眾頂上。彼眾怖懼,投祖。祖再指之,化山隨滅。乃為王演法,俾趣真乘。後得般若多羅,即辭王曰:「吾化緣已終,當歸寂滅。」即還本座,跏趺而逝。

白話解釋


The Twenty-Seventh Patriarch, The Venerable Prajnatara
二十七祖般若多羅尊者

The venerable one, who is the teacher of great master Bodhidharma, was from eastern India. Once, before he had left the home life, he encountered the king of his country and because the king and the patriarch Basiasita were together in a carriage and passed the venerable one, he bowed before them. The venerable Prajnatara made a half bow as the carriage was passing. The patriarch asked, "do you remember past events?"
He answered, "I remember in a distant kalpa past I dwelt in the same place as you, master, and you proclaimed the maha-prajna. I recited the profound sutra. Today's event tallies with past causes."
The patriarch Basiasita said to the king, "this child is none other than great strength bodhisattva. He's a transformation body of one of the three sages of the, western land of ultimate bliss."
Later in southern India the king invited the venerable one to a vegetarian meal one day. The king asked, "Everyone present is reciting the sutras but the master, why don't you recite too?"
The venerable one replied, "This one of poor origins does not follow the multitude of conditions when inhaling, and does not dwell in the skandhas and realms when exhaling. He does not dwell in the five skandhas, the six entrances, the twelve places, and the eighteen realms. I am forever reciting such a sutra and it has hundre1s of thousands of volumes, not just one of two. It's not a visible, material sutra that i recite; it is the true sutra without words.
Afterwards he gave the dharma to venerable Bodhidharma, the twenty eighth Indian patriarch. He returned to his seat and both hands emitted light. He sat in full lotus and both hands emitted light. Transformed a fire and burned his own body. The light turned into a fire and he cremated himself. How convenient! Cremate yourself and don't put anyone to any trouble. That is indescribably wonderful!

尊者,東印土人。因國王與不如密多祖(註1),同車而出,尊者稽首於前,祖曰:「汝憶往事否?」答曰:「我念遠劫中,與師同居,師演摩訶般若,我轉甚深修多羅。今日之事,蓋契昔因。」祖乃謂王曰:「此子非他,即大勢至菩薩是也。」後南印土國王,一日請尊者,齋次,王問:「諸人盡轉經,唯師為甚不轉。」尊者曰:「貧道出息不隨眾緣,入息不居陰界。常轉如是經,百千萬億卷,非但一卷兩卷。」後轉付菩提達摩,兩手各放光明,化火自焚。

白話解釋





釋迦牟尼文佛 / Sakyamuni Buddha

白話解釋

佛示生於中天竺國,為淨飯聖王之子:釋迦牟尼佛示生在中天竺(中印度)的舍衛國,是淨飯王的太子。 尋捨轉輪聖王位,出家成無上道:「尋」字,就是沒有多久。佛出生在皇宮裏頭,對於世間的財、色、名、食、睡都不要,所以沒有多久,就捨轉輪聖王的王位;釋迦牟尼佛如果不出家,就會做轉輪王;那麼他把它捨棄了,出家修行,成就無上正等正覺,即阿耨多羅三藐三菩提。 轉大法輪:佛成佛後,講經說法,轉大法輪,教化眾生。 其後七十九歲,垂般涅槃:佛七十九歲時,就入滅、圓寂了。 乃以正法眼藏,付其高第弟子摩訶迦葉:高第,是年老的。佛以正法眼藏,傳給他最老的徒弟──摩訶迦葉尊者,不是大徒弟。「葉」字讀「社」。佛傳法的徒弟是摩訶迦葉,就是大迦葉,也就是修頭陀行的老迦葉。 并敕阿難,副二傳化:敕,是令;副,是協助;二,是兩個。并敕令阿難尊者,幫著迦葉尊者來傳揚佛法。 復以金縷僧伽梨衣,令大迦葉轉付當來補處彌勒佛:僧伽梨衣,是祖衣,就是佛的衣缽。佛令大迦葉尊者在雲南雞足山那個地方入定,等著當來下生彌勒尊佛出世的時候,把佛的衣缽交給彌勒尊佛。 其說偈曰:隨著佛就說了一首傳法偈給迦葉。 法本法無法:說什麼叫法?法本來就沒有什麼法可說的。 無法法亦法:可是在這個無法之中,我們又來說這個法。 今付無法時:我現在傳給你這個衣缽時,這是心印法,沒有什麼形象的。 法法何曾法:這個法中的法又有什麼法呢?沒有什麼!「本來無一物,何處惹塵埃」,這就是「何曾法」。


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初祖摩訶迦葉 - First Patriarch - Mahakashyapa

白話解釋

尊者:就是指摩訶迦葉;「摩訶」是大的意思,也就是大迦葉尊者。他活到現在還沒有死呢!在雲南雞足山那兒入定,等著當來下生彌勒尊佛成佛的時候,把金縷僧伽梨的衣,交給彌勒尊佛;因為這件衣是佛佛相傳的,所以他就在那等著彌勒尊佛出世。從那時到現在大約有兩、三千多年了,他還在雞足山那兒入定呢! 本摩竭陀國人,出婆羅門氏:摩竭陀國是古印度一個國家的名字,尊者是那個地方的人,生於婆羅門種。印度有四個種姓,婆羅門是其中之一,是尊貴的種姓。 其形金色:尊者的身上有一種光明,這種光超過一切的光,把其他的光明都遮蓋住,就好像把一切的光都吞了、飲了;無論是燈光、日光、月光、星光……,一遇著大迦葉尊者的光,都顯不出它們的光了!因此稱為「飲光氏」。他怎麼會有這種光呢? 在過去毗婆尸佛滅度之後,有一座破廟,這座廟不但頹壞,連塔也傾倒了,佛像在那兒就像在露營似的,風吹雨打的。這時有一個窮女人,一看到這種情形很痛心,就發心要為佛造座廟,為佛像裝金。這個女人雖然發了這種心願,可是她是個很窮的人,於是就各處去要飯化緣買金子。要了十幾年的飯,也就積蓄了很多金子,足夠修廟及鋪金,於是就請了一個冶金師為佛像貼金。金匠見她一片赤誠,便對她有一種好感,於是發心免費出力為佛像舖金。工作完成後,金匠就向她求婚,而且兩人發願生生世世都要做夫婦,一起修道──皈依三寶,出家了道。 大迦葉尊者就是當時的那位冶金匠,因為他過去做窮人的時候,發心為佛像鋪金,所以和他的太太──日後出家為紫金光比丘尼,生生世世身體都有金色的光。 見佛出家,冀度諸有:等到釋迦牟尼佛來到這個世界時,迦葉尊者本來是個老外道,帶著很多的徒弟在那兒修行。但是遇著佛了,覺得自己不行了,所以他那時候雖然已經一百二十多歲,還是拜佛做師父,跟著佛出家,想要教化一切的眾生。 佛於眾中,稱為第一:佛在大眾弟子裏頭,說摩訶迦葉是第一個大弟子。 一日,佛於靈山會上,拈出一枝金色缽羅花示眾:有一天,佛在靈鷲山,拿一枝金色的缽羅花,出示給大家看。 時大眾默然:那時誰也不知道是怎麼回事,都在那兒不知說什麼好了。默然,就是沒講話。惟尊者破顏微笑:惟有迦葉尊者,就在那兒笑起來了。破顏,他本來是很莊嚴、很鄭重其事的,可是這時卻笑起來了。 佛曰︰吾有正法眼藏,涅槃妙心,實相無相,微妙法門,不立文字,教外別傳,付囑摩訶迦葉。他這一笑,佛就說了:「我現在有正法眼藏,這是個涅槃的妙心、不生不滅的,你說它有相嗎?又無相;你說它無相嗎?又有相!所以實相無相,無所不相。這個是不可思議的微妙法門,文字寫不出來的。現在我所教你們的,是教外特別地傳授的,我已經把這種法門傳給大迦葉了!」 復以金縷僧伽梨囑曰,轉授當來慈氏佛:僧伽梨,就是袈裟。又付以佛的袈裟,囑咐他說:「你拿著、保護著它,把它交給將來成佛的慈氏佛。」慈氏,就是彌勒尊佛。 尊者作禮曰,恭依佛敕:摩訶迦葉就向釋迦牟尼佛頂禮,說:「我要恭恭敬敬地依教奉行,我要保護這袈裟。」 後尊者以法轉付阿難:以後摩訶迦葉尊者又把這個正法印、正法眼藏轉付給阿難尊者。即持僧伽梨,入雞足山入定:迦葉尊者就帶著這僧伽梨袈裟,轉入雞足山,在那兒入定。雞足山,就在中國雲南。以俟慈氏下生:俟,候著。就在那兒等著彌勒尊佛將來出世。


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二祖阿難陀 - Second Patriarch - Ananda

白話解釋

尊者,王舍城人,斛飯王子,佛之從弟也,多聞第一:迦葉尊者是第一代祖師,阿難尊者是第二代祖師,他是王舍城的人,斛飯王的兒子,是佛的堂弟。他多聞第一,所有佛說的經典,都是在耆闍堀山由尊者憶誦出,經大眾印證結集而成的。佛所說的法,阿難尊者都記得清清楚楚,永遠不忘,所以阿難尊者的記憶力非常好。 一日問迦葉曰:師兄!世尊傳金 袈裟外,別傳箇甚麼?偶爾有一天,他就問大迦葉尊者:「佛傳這袈裟之外,還另外有什麼傳給你嗎?」 迦葉召阿難,尊者應諾:迦葉就這麼用手召一召阿難,阿難尊者就答應了。 迦葉曰:倒卻門前剎竿著。迦葉說:「你把門前那根旗杆,給我弄倒了它。」 後迦葉乃告尊者曰︰我今年不久留,今將正法付囑於汝,汝善守護。那麼在這以後,迦葉尊者告訴阿難尊者說:「我現在很老了,不願意留在這兒太久的時間。我現在把佛的正法眼藏傳授給你了!你好好地在這兒保護這個正法眼藏。」付囑於汝,就是傳授給你。後尊者轉付法於商那和修:以後阿難尊者,又把正法眼藏傳給商那和修尊者。 於恆河中流入滅,湧身虛空,現十八變,入風奮迅三昧:阿難尊者在恆河裏邊入滅,在那兒圓寂了。他入滅時,不是就那麼死了,而是湧身到虛空裏去,現十八變。證果的人,可以在虛空裏現十八變。這十八變是什麼?就是身上邊出火、身下出水;或者身下出火、身上出水;或者躺在空中、或者坐在空中──就在虛空裏邊遊行自在,現十八種的變化。啊!這時候,又刮大風、又打雷,尊者入風奮迅三昧這種定。 分身四分,一奉忉利天,一奉娑竭羅龍宮,一奉毗舍離王,一奉阿闍世王,各各造寶塔供養:荼毘後,阿難尊者的舍利被分成四份──一份供養到忉利天上,一份供到娑竭羅龍宮裏頭去,又給毗舍離王一份,再一份就給阿闍世王;每一份都是在當地造寶塔供養。


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三祖商那和修 / Third Patriarch - Shanakavasa

白話解釋

尊者,摩突羅國人,姓毗舍多:三祖商那和修是摩突羅國家的人,他的姓是毗舍多。 在胎六年:他也因為和羅睺羅尊者差不多的情形,大約也是堵蛇的洞,或者老鼠的洞,或者其它什麼畜生的洞,憋六天或者六個月,所以他也在胎內住了六年。應瑞而生:他出生的時候,有很多祥瑞的事情發生。 後出家,學仙道,居雪山:後來他就出家了,學的是老道,在雪山那兒修苦行。仙道就是老道。因阿難將入滅,時山河大地六種震動:因為阿難尊者那時候將要入滅了,所以在這個時候,一切地方都有震、吼、擊、動、湧、起這六種的震動。 尊者同五百仙人,禮阿難足,而跪請曰:那時有五百個仙人,跟著商那和修尊者在一起修行,他就向阿難尊者頂禮叩頭,行兩手托足禮,跪到阿難尊者的面前請法,說︰「我於長老,當證佛法,願垂度脫:我在長老您現在要入滅的時候,向長老您學習佛法,將來也成佛。我應該是您的弟子,在您的面前得到佛法,所以請您憐憫我的困苦艱難,度脫我,令我了生脫死。」 阿難即變恆河為金地:在這個時候,阿難尊者就將恆河變為完全都是金地,也沒有水了。這個「變」是一時的,不是永久的,是一種變化相,並不是實在的。所以當時恆河也都黃金為地,天上也就雨曼陀羅花、摩訶曼陀羅花、曼殊沙花、摩訶曼殊沙花;因為六種震動的時候,都有這個境界出現了。那麼阿難為什麼要把恆河都變成金色的地呢?這就是說──佛法是不可思議的,世間一切都是無常的。 為說大法曰:昔如來以正法眼付大迦葉,迦葉尊者轉付於我,我今付汝。就為商那和修尊者說正法眼藏這個法︰「以前,佛把正法眼藏傳給大迦葉尊者,大迦葉尊者又傳授給我,我現在把這個正法眼藏又傳給你。」 尊者既得法,降二火龍,以建梵宮,轉大法輪:商那和修尊者得到正法眼藏後,就遊化世間來教化眾生。後來到了摩突羅國優留荼林地,這個地方本來是很好的,但是有兩條火龍在這兒佔著,不准其他人來用,所以一造廟,就會被火燒。之後,商那和修尊者把這兩條火龍降伏了,牠們也歸順佛教,尊者就在這地方建造了一座清淨的道場,在那兒弘揚佛法。 後付法與優波毱多尊者,即隱罽賓國象白山,現十八變,火光三昧,用焚其身:他以後把這個法傳給優波毱多尊者,然後就隱遁在北印度的罽賓國南方,在那兒的一座象白山。等到圓寂的時候,也現空中十八變,現出火光三昧,把自己焚了。


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四祖優婆毱多 / Fourth Patriarch - Upagupta

白話解釋

尊者,吒利國人也,姓首陀:從釋迦牟尼佛算起來,優婆毱多尊者是第四代祖師,他生在印度一個叫吒利國的地方,姓首陀。 年十七,投三祖出家:他十七歲的時候,跟著商那和修尊者出家。 祖問︰汝年幾何?第三祖就問他:「你多大年紀了?」 答曰:十七。他答說:「我十七歲了!」 祖曰:汝身十七耶?性十七耶?第三祖又說:「你是身體十七嗎?還是你自性十七呢?」 答曰:師髮已白,為髮白耶?心白耶?這個「師」,就是指商那和修尊者。優婆毱多尊者就回答說:「您的頭髮都白了!是您髮白呢?還是心白呢?」就這麼樣,他不答他是年十七或者性十七;反問三祖:「您髮已經白了,那麼是您髮白嗎?還是您心裏白呢?」你看! 祖曰:我髮白,非心白也。三祖反而答覆說︰「是我頭髮白了,我心沒有白啊!」 答曰:我身十七,非性十七耶。優婆毱多尊者就說:「我的身體是十七,可是我的性沒有一個十七。」 祖知是法器,遂為落髮受具:三祖知道這個人是不錯的,有點智慧,即刻就把他頭髮給剃了,再給他受具足戒。 告之曰:昔如來以無上法眼,付囑迦葉,展轉相授,而至於我。我今付汝,勿令斷絕:三祖就告訴他:「從前釋迦牟尼佛,以沒有再比這個高上的法眼,付囑給迦葉尊者,一代一代傳下來,直到現在傳給我。我現在再把這個法傳給你;你將來要傳出去,不要讓它斷絕。」迦葉尊者這個「葉」字應該劃去聲圈,讀迦葉(音「社」)。展轉,就是一代一代傳下來。 尊者得法已,隨方行化:尊者得法之後,到處去教化眾生,度化很多眾生,所以魔王就害怕了。魔宮震動:若真有一個修道的人,天魔的宮殿就常常動的,他們在那兒都不安。為什麼天魔要破壞人修道?就因為若有真修道的人,他那個地方就不平安了!這是兩股力量:若魔的力量勝了,那麼佛的力量就低了;若佛的力量勝了,那魔的力量就低了。所以若好人多,壞人也就少了;若壞人多,好人也就少了。萬佛聖城裏都是學不爭、不貪、不求、不自私、不自利、不打妄語,所以好人就多,那兒的空氣就和外邊的空氣完全不同的。你到了萬佛聖城裏頭,就知道萬佛聖城的這種好處了。 波旬愁怖:魔王波旬就害怕了,「喔!怎麼回事啊?」就好像人怕地震似的,害怕起來,想盡辦法用其魔力來破正法,可是優婆毱多尊者有修行,有真正禪定的功夫,所以就把魔王降伏,皈依三寶了。 後得提多迦已,遂踴身虛空,呈十八變,復坐,跏趺而逝:以後四祖優婆毱多尊者遇到提多迦尊者,就把法傳給他。傳法之後,就往上一跳,跳到虛空中去,在空中現十八變──在空中躺著、在空中坐著、在空中站著,在空中身上出水、身下出火;身下出水、身上出火等等,有十八種的變化。然後他又回到這個世界,結跏趺坐,就圓寂了。


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五祖提多迦 / Fifth Patriarch - Dhirtaka

白話解釋

尊者,摩伽陀國人也,生時,父夢金日照曜天地:第五祖是提多迦尊者,他是摩伽陀國的人。出生的時候,他的父親夢見一個金色的太陽照耀著天地。 長遇四祖,求出家:等他長大了,就遇著第四祖優婆毱多尊者,他向四祖要求出家。 祖曰︰汝身出家?心出家耶?四祖對他說:「你是身想要出家呢?還是心想要出家?」 答曰:我求出家,非為身心。他說:「我就是來求出家,也不是身出家,也不是心出家,不是為著身心出家。」 祖曰︰不為身心,誰復出家?四祖就問他說:「你不是為著身心,不是身出家、心出家,那麼究竟誰出家呢?」 答曰:他就答覆說︰「夫出家者:怎麼叫出家呢?出家,有的出煩惱家,有的出紅塵家,有的出生死家,有的出牢獄家。出家的人,無我我故:沒有我,也沒有一個我所有;若沒有我了,又怎麼會有身、心呢?即心不生滅:就是在心上,也是不生不滅。心不生滅,即是常道:這個心也不生、也不滅,這就是真常之道,一個經常不變的道。諸佛亦然︰諸佛就是這樣子,也是心不生不滅。心無形相:這個心沒有個形象,也不是青黃赤白黑,也不是長短方圓。其體亦然:心的體性也是這樣子,也沒有個形象。」 祖曰:汝當大悟,心自靈通。四祖就說:「你將來應該會開大悟的;你開悟的時候,心裏是很明白的,自然就靈通了!」 即為剃度,受具,付以大法:於是就把他頭髮給剃了,為他授具足戒,然後傳與他正法眼藏,涅槃妙心的大法。 尊者得法已,行化至中印土,轉付法與彌遮迦:尊者得傳法之後,在中印度那個地方,又把這個法傳給第六祖彌遮迦尊者。 乃踴身虛空,作十八變,入火光三昧,自焚其身:隨著他就跳到虛空,作十八種的變化。十八變,就是身上出火、身下出水;身下出火、身上出水;在虛空又站著、又坐著、又在那兒躺著,現出種種不可思議的境界。又入火光定,用火光三昧,就把自己燒了。


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六祖彌遮迦 / Sixth Patriarch - Micchaka

白話解釋

尊者,中印土人,初學仙法:六祖彌遮迦尊者,是中印度人,起先他學出玄入牝,修神仙的法門,當時他是八千個仙人中的上首。 因五祖至彼國,尊者瞻禮曰:昔與師同生梵天,我遇仙人授我仙法;師逢佛子,修習禪那,自此報分殊途,已經六劫。因為五祖到他的國家去,彌遮迦尊者就向他頂禮,說:「我往昔和師父您一同往生到大梵天上。後來我遇到阿私陀仙人,傳給我修仙的法門;師父您就遇著佛的弟子,修習禪定。由此,我們兩個人就生了死、死了生,走的路不一樣,受的果報也不一樣了!已經有六劫這麼長的時間了。」殊途,就是走的路不一樣。 祖曰:支離累劫,誠哉不虛!今可捨邪歸正,以入佛乘。五祖就說了︰「你說的話是真的!我們分別那麼多劫了。現在你可以捨你那個邪道,歸正道,入到佛乘來了。」支離累劫,就是分別那麼多劫了。 尊者曰︰今幸相遇,非宿緣耶?願師慈悲,令我解脫。彌遮迦尊者就說:「我們現在很幸運地相逢了,這豈不是往昔的緣呢?以前阿私陀仙人就已經為我授記說︰『六劫後,你會遇到你以前的同學,度你獲得無漏果。』願師父您發慈悲,令我也得到解脫。」 祖即與剃度,授具足,付以大法:五祖提多迦尊者就馬上為他剃度,授具足戒,傳給他佛的心印法門。 尊者,得法已,遊化至北天竺國,付法與婆須密:六祖得法之後,就各處教化眾生,遊化至北天竺時,付法給婆須密尊者。 即入師子奮迅三昧,踴身高七多羅樹,卻復本座,化火自焚:然後就入到師子奮迅三昧,踴身虛空,跳得有七多羅樹那麼高;又回到自己的座位上,用三昧真火──這個定火,把自己燒了。


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七祖婆須密 / Seventh Patriarch - Vasumitra

白話解釋

尊者,北天竺國人也:第七祖,名字叫婆須密,是北天竺國的人。他常常穿著潔淨的衣服,手拿著酒器,遊行街里,或者吟誦,或者長嘯,所以人們都認為他是個狂人。 因六祖遊化,見尊者手持酒器:第六祖彌遮迦者尊者,本來是中印度的人,得法後,就四處遊化教導眾生。有一天,他來到了北天竺國(北印度),看到城牆上避箭的短牆上,佈滿金色的祥雲,瑞氣騰空,忍不住贊歎說︰「哦!這是道人的氣,這兒一定有聖人可以繼承我的法脈!」於是就進城了。進城後,六祖見到尊者手上拿著一個酒器,在街里遊行。 這時,婆須密尊者一見到六祖,就逆而問曰︰師何方來,欲往何所?逆,就是迎上前去。他就迎上前去問六祖︰「師父,您是從什麼地方來的?又要到什麼地方去呢?」祖曰:從自心來,欲往無處。六祖回答︰「我從自性來,沒有一個去處。」尊者曰:識我手中物否?他又問︰「您認識我手中的東西嗎?」 祖曰︰此是觸器,而負淨者。六祖就說了:「這是一個髒的容器;雖然是個不潔的器皿,但是裏頭裝的卻是乾淨的東西。」觸,就是骯髒不潔。 尊者曰:師識我否?婆須密尊者又說:「那師父您認識我嗎?」 祖曰:我即不識,識即非我。六祖就說了︰「我不認識你啊!我怎麼會認識你呢?我若認識你的話,那個就不是我了!」又說︰「你說說自己的名字姓氏吧!我會告訴你過去的因緣。」婆須密尊者就回答︰「我從無量劫以來,乃至於生到這個國家,姓頗羅墮,名字叫婆須密。」 六祖就說︰「我的師父提多迦尊者曾經說過︰佛住世的時候,有一次遊化來到了北印度,告訴阿難尊者說︰『我滅度三百年後,這個國家會有一聖人出世,姓頗羅墮,名婆須密,而他將是第七代祖師。』你看!世尊早就為你授記了,所以你應該出家。」於是婆須密尊者就放下酒器,頂禮六祖,側立一旁說︰「我回想起在過去無量劫中,曾經是一個施主,當時我供養寶座給一位佛,那位佛就為我授記說︰『你將來會於賢劫釋迦牟尼佛的法中,宣揚傳播聖教。』這與師父您現在所說的,正相符合,請您度脫我出離生死吧!」 後為披薙圓戒,付以大法:所以六祖就為他落髮出家,再為他授具足戒,並且傳給他以心印心的法,囑咐他勿令正法斷絕,其傳法偈如下: 無心無可得 說得不名法 若了心非心 始了心心法  尊者得法已,行化至迦摩羅國,廣興佛事,後付法與佛陀難提:婆須蜜尊者得法以後,遊方行化到了迦摩羅國,到處傳揚佛法。以後就在這個國家,把心印的法傳給八祖佛陀難提尊者。 即入慈心三昧,復起,示眾曰:八祖受印證之後,婆須密尊者就入慈心三昧的這種定,又出定,對大眾說︰ 我所得法:我所得到的這種法,而非有故:並不是有個「有」的緣故,不是有所得。若識佛地:你若是識得佛的境界了,離有無故:那是因為你離開了「有」和「無」──也沒有一個「有」,也沒有一個「無」了。 語已,還入三昧,示涅槃:婆須密尊者說完後,又再入定,就圓寂了。


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八祖佛陀難提 / Eighth Patriarch - Buddhanandi

白話解釋

尊者,迦摩羅國人也:第八祖,名字叫佛陀難提,是印度迦摩羅國的人。 頂有肉髻,辯才無礙:這他一生來,頂上就有個肉髻。你看他這個像,頂上有個肉髻,有個肉糾糾。他無論和誰講話,誰都講不過他,他一定勝利。 初見七祖,論義:這他一開始去見七祖婆須密尊者,就到那兒和七祖論義。論義,就是大家談論義理的意思。這是沒有「言」字邊的「義」,不是「議論」。 祖曰:仁者,論即不義,義即不論,若擬論義,終非義論。這七祖就對他說了:仁者!你一論,就不是真義了。「義即不論」,你若是真有義的時候,是不可以論的。「若擬論義」:你若是想一想,想來研究這個真正的道理的話。「終非義論」:你就沒有真理了。這個「義」,是真正的真理;前面的「擬論義」,就是你若想來說真理的話。 尊者知祖義勝,心即欽服:這這位佛陀難提尊者,知道七祖的道理比他高了!因為那個真正的道理,你說不出來的,所以心裏很佩服七祖的。曰:吾願求道,霑甘露味。說︰「我願意現在向祖師求道,我想要得到這個甘露法味。」祖遂與剃度,授具,付以大法:七祖當時就給他剃度,授具足戒,傳給他心印的大法。偈曰:又給他說一首偈頌: 心同虛空界,示等虛空法:這心和虛空是一樣的,我現在指示你這個虛空的法。 證得虛空時,無是無非法:這你證得虛空這個境界的時候,「無是無非法」,這才是沒有什麼義可議論的了。 尊者得法已,領眾行化,至提伽國,轉付法與伏馱密多:這尊者得法之後,就領眾遊方行化,來到了提伽國,又將此心印法門傳給第九祖伏馱密多尊者。即現神變,卻復本座,端然示寂:然後就即刻現出神通變化,踴身虛空,現十八變後,又回到自己的座位上,就在那兒跏趺而坐,往生了。爾時眾建寶塔,葬其全身:當時大家給他建個寶塔,把他的全身葬在那兒。


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九祖伏馱密多 / Ninth Patriarch - Buddhamitra

白話解釋 - 編按:此篇原稿遺失,故由弟子補白話解。

尊者,提伽國人,年已五十,口未嘗言,足未曾履:九祖伏馱密多尊者,姓毗舍羅,是提伽國的人;提伽是古代印度的一個國名。他活到五十歲的時候,嘴巴沒講過話,也不走路。他是不是真的不會說話、不會走路?他這是因為前生的修行,不受世間的這個染污法,所以他腳不會用來到處去串門子,嘴巴也不會去說是說非的。 一日,見八祖所說真吾弟子:當第八祖佛陀難提尊者率領徒眾,行化到提伽國城,接近毗舍羅家時,見到屋頂上白光沖騰,就告訴他的徒眾說:「這戶人家一定有聖人,他口不說話,是真正大乘的根器;腳不行道路街衢,因為知道一走路就是觸到污穢。」八祖說完這話後,毗舍羅長者就出來了,頂禮八祖,並請八祖進入他家。他問八祖有什麼需要幫忙,八祖說:「我需要一個侍者。」毘舍羅長者就指著伏馱密多說:「我這個孩子,名叫伏馱密多。今年已經五十歲了,可是從來不開口講話,腳也不碰到地上,他合適當您的侍者嗎?」八祖就說:「如果他就像你所說的,這真是我的一個好徒弟啊!」 尊者即起禮拜,問曰:這時伏馱密多尊者一聽,馬上站了起來,向八祖頂禮;不但站了起來,也開口說話了。你們看!他這真是求法很恭敬的。他問八祖:「父母非我親,誰是最親者:如果父母不是我親近的人,那麼誰才是我最親的人呢? 諸佛非我道,誰是最道者:如果諸佛不是能引導我的,那誰才是最能傳我道的人呢?」 祖曰:八祖就說:「汝言與心親,父母非可比:你說的話若是和心是接近的,也就是說你若心口如一了;那麼父母也比不上這個那麼親近的。汝行與道合,諸佛心即是:你的行為若是與道合一了,那麼你的道心也就是諸佛的心了。」 尊者聞偈已,便行七步:伏馱密多尊者聽八祖唸這麼一首偈之後,就也能走了;一走,走了七步。這走七步是「八相成道」之一的「出胎」,諸佛都是一生下來就走七步的。他雖然不是才出生,但是以前他不走路,所以他現在也是一落地行走,就走了七步。 祖曰:此子昔曾值佛發願,慮父母難捨,故不言不履耳。八祖說:「這個孩子在從前曾遇到過佛。他就發願要出家修行,不受染污。可是他憂慮父母捨不得他,所以才不說話,也不行走。」 長者遂捨出家:聽八祖這樣一說,他父親就捨不得也得捨了,於是乎,許可他出家修行去。 祖乃薙落,授具,付以大法:八祖就給他落髮,又傳授他具足戒,把心印的法門傳給他。 尊者得法已,至中印土行化,轉付法於難生:尊者得法之後,就各處去弘揚佛法,到中印土這地方時,又把法傳給難生。難生就是十祖脅尊者本來的名字,因為他很難生的,住在母胎裏頭六十年才生出來。 即入滅盡三昧,而般涅槃:以後九祖就入滅盡無餘的這個定,入涅槃了。


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十祖脅 / Tenth Patriarch - "Ribs" Parshva

白話解釋

尊者,中印土人:十祖脅尊者是中印度的人。怎麼叫脅尊者呢?他就是打坐的地方不著蓆;他不像我們這個果童,坐坐就躺下了,不是那樣子的。他若坐在那兒,脅就不著蓆,一般人就叫他「脅尊者」。 因隨父謁九祖,父曰:他隨他父親去見九祖,他父親就說了:「此子處胎六十歲,因名難生:他在胎裏頭六十年。你看看!這不容易生,六十年才生出來,你說是不是不容易生?好像中國的老子,在母親肚裏八十年,所以叫「老子」,這比他還多二十年。嘗有仙謂:此兒非凡,當為法器。今遇尊者,可令出家:曾經有仙人說,這個小孩子不是一個普通尿床的小孩,是一個不尿床的小孩子,將來會做法門的一個器皿。現在遇到九祖您了,我現在就叫他出家。」 祖即為落髮,授具:九祖就給他落髮,授具足戒了。羯磨之際,祥光燭座,仍感舍利三七粒現前:在傳戒正說三番羯磨的時候,有祥光照著燭台座上,感應到舍利三七粒現前,三七二十一,也就是有二十一顆舍利現前。 自此精進忘疲,脅不至蓆,人遂號為脅尊者:因為這樣,所以他受戒之後,就精進得忘了疲倦。我們修行修行,就疲倦了,而他不知道疲倦,他的脅從來也不靠到蓆子上。所以一般人稱他為「脅尊者」。 後祖付以大法:以後九祖就傳給他心印的法門。尊者得法已,行化至華氏國,轉付法於富那夜奢:十祖受印證,得到傳法之後,就到華氏國去。華氏國,這是印度的一個國名。十祖就傳法給富那夜奢尊者了。 即現神變,而入涅槃,化火自焚:隨即就現出來十八變,入涅槃了。又化出三昧火,把自己燒了。四眾各以衣裓,盛舍利,隨處建塔:四眾──優婆塞、優婆夷、比丘、比丘尼,紛紛以衣裓盛他的舍利,並在各處造塔供養。


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十一祖富那夜奢 / Eleventh Patriarch - Punyayashas

白話解釋

尊者,華氏國人:這位尊者的名字叫富那夜奢。印度有一個華氏國,他是那個國家的人。 因十祖行化,至其國:十祖,就是那個脅不著蓆的脅尊者,他到這個國家──華氏國。華氏國,我也沒有去過,你們有沒有去過,我不知道。總而言之,這是印度一個古老的國名;知道不知道,這沒有什麼大問題。或者你只記著他不是中國人就可以了,對不對?他是印度人。你若一定說,哪兒是華氏國?華氏國現在叫什麼名字?這真是太麻煩了!不要用這種死功夫,又考古、考新的,考來考去考死了!你們想一想,是不是啊?考死了,來生再考;愈考愈不清楚! 憩一樹下:憩,就是憩息;在一棵樹下休息。因為他脅不著蓆,所以也不要進房子裏邊去,都是在外邊;他是日中一食、樹下一宿,和我們這兒差不多的。這時他右手指地,告訴徒眾說:「此地一變成金色,就會有聖人出現。」話一說完,地馬上變成金色。 尊者適來,合掌前立:這個尊者就是十一祖富那夜奢,他這時也來到這棵樹下,看見脅尊者在那兒打坐,就上前來,面對著脅尊者,像塊木頭似的,這樣合起掌來,立在那兒不動了。啊!我不是罵祖師,這真是那個樣子! 編按:以下原稿遺失,故由弟子補白話解。 祖問:汝從何來?十祖問他:「你是從什麼地方來的?」 答曰:我心非往。他答說:「我的心不從任何地方來!」 十祖曰:汝何處住?十祖又問他:「你住在什麼地方?」 答曰:我心非止。他就回答:「我的心也沒有一個住處。」止,就是《金剛經》說的「應無所住而生其心」的那個「住」,也就是「執著」。兩個人就這麼一來一往地打著機鋒。 祖曰:汝不定耶?十祖說:「你沒有一個固定的處所嗎?」 答曰:諸佛亦然。他答說:「諸佛也都是這樣啊!」 祖曰:汝非諸佛。十祖說:「你可不是諸佛!」意思說他還沒成佛呢! 答曰:諸佛亦非。他又回答說:「諸佛都沒有!」你看看! 祖因說偈曰:十祖聽他這麼說,就知道他是個法器,就說了一首偈:此地變金色,預知有聖至:這大地都變成金色的,我預先知道有聖人要來了。當坐菩提樹,覺華而成已:你啊!你是應當坐在菩提樹下的,你就要開悟成道了! 富那夜奢尊者就回了一首偈: 師坐金色地,常說真實義,迴光而照我,令入三摩諦 「師坐金色地,常說真實義」,師父您坐在金色的地上,所說的都是真語、實語,如所如說。「迴光而照我,令入三摩諦」,請您教我迴光返照的方法,令我得到正定正受。 祖知其意,即為薙落授具:十祖知道他的心意,是想要出家修道的;就替他落髮,傳授具足戒。因付以大法:就把大法傳給他。大法,就是以心印心、不立文字的妙法,也就是「這個」;若你識得了「這個」,就可以修道了!並且為他說了個傳法偈: 真體自然真 因真說有理 領得真真法 無行亦無止 尊者得法已,行化至波羅奈國,轉付法於馬鳴:尊者,就是十一祖;他受法給印證之後,到波羅奈那個國家去傳法,再把法傳給馬鳴大士。即現神變,湛然圓寂:就現阿羅漢的十八種神變,然後就湛然圓寂了。他是很清楚、沒有一點點染污,淨得像鏡子,清得像水,可以一看就看到底。眾建寶塔,閟其全身:眾人就建寶塔,把他全身封閉在缸內,供奉在塔裏面。


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十二祖馬鳴 / Twelfth Patriarch - Ashvagosha

白話解釋

大士,波羅奈國人:十二祖馬鳴大士是波羅奈國人。謁十一祖,問曰:我欲識佛,何者即是?他去拜見十一祖,問說:「我想認識佛,什麼是佛呢?」 祖曰:汝欲識佛,不識者是。十一祖說:「你想認識佛,你不認識的就是。」因為你沒有識嘛!你想認識佛,可見你是還沒有認識呢!所以說汝欲識佛,不識者就是佛! 答曰:佛既不識,焉知是乎?馬鳴大士就回答:「佛,我又不認識,怎麼知道他是佛呢?」 祖曰:既不識佛,焉知不是?十一祖就說:「你不認識佛,你怎麼又知道他不是佛呢?」這都是機鋒轉語、打機鋒。這兩個人辯論,你既然不認識佛,你又怎麼知道不是佛呢? 大士豁然省悟,祖為剃度,乃曰:大士,就是馬鳴菩薩;豁然,就是豁然貫通;省悟,就不是睡覺,是醒了。這樣子,十一祖就為他剃度,說了他過去生的因緣── 此人昔為毗舍利國王,運其神力,分身為蠶,國人得衣:這個人以前是毗舍利的國王,這個國家分上、中、下三類人,上類的人身上有光明,衣服、飲食自然應念而生;中類的人身上就沒有光明,衣服、飲食必須要求取才能得到;而最下類的人,沒有衣服穿,就好像馬裸露一樣。這個國王悲憫這類人,就用神通變化的願力,把他的身體分開變為很多蠶。因為他變了很多蠶子,蠶吐了很多絲,所以大家都有衣服穿了。 後生中印土,馬人悲戀,因號馬鳴:因為這樣的功德,所以就生到中印度。當他捨離毗舍利國時,那些馬人都感念他的恩德,對他戀戀不捨,全都悲鳴起來,所以得了「馬鳴」這個稱號。他大約也常常作馬鳴,像馬哭的樣子,來度化馬類的眾生,因此號稱「馬鳴菩薩」。總之,他這個名號是怎麼來的,並不重要的,怎麼說怎麼合理就可以了。 如來記曰:吾滅後六百年,當有賢者,度人無量,繼吾傳化。佛以前曾授過記,說:「我滅度後六百年,將會有聖賢出世,度人很多,他是傳佛心印的一個人。」 今正是時,遂付以法:這是十一祖說的,說:「現在正是這個時候。」於是就傳給他心印的法。 後得迦毗摩羅,即入龍奮迅三昧,挺身空中,如日輪相,然後示滅:後來馬鳴大士又傳法給迦毗摩羅尊者,就立即入龍奮迅三昧的定,踴身虛空如同太陽,然後就圓寂,入涅槃了。


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十三祖迦毘摩羅 / Thirteenth Patriarch - Kapimala

白話解釋

尊者,華氏國人:迦毘摩羅尊者,就是第十三祖,他出生的國家叫華氏國,是華氏國的人。 初為外道,通諸異論,有大神力:他最初是一個外道,什麼「奇門遁甲」這些個天書、地書、人書他都懂,而且有大神通。 初見十二祖,作禮懺悔:他也很調皮的,盡用他的神通,做出一些調皮搗蛋的事。所以最初見到十二祖馬鳴大士時,就對著十二祖叩頭來懺悔。 祖問:汝名誰,眷屬多少?十二祖問他:「你名字叫什麼?你有多少弟子?」眷屬,就是弟子。 尊者曰:我名迦毗摩羅,有三千眷屬。尊者說:「我的名字叫迦毗摩羅,有三千個徒弟。」 祖曰:盡汝神力,變化若何?十二祖說:「盡你的神力,你能變化什麼?」曰:我化巨海,極為小事:他說:「我變成一個大海,這對我來說是很小的事。」 祖曰:汝化性海得否?十二祖說:「你能不能變化一個性海,可不可以?」得否,就是可不可以。 曰:何謂性海?我未嘗知。他說:「什麼叫性海呢?我知都不知道,怎麼會變呢?」 祖曰:山河大地,皆依建立;三昧六通,由玆變現。十二祖就說了:「山河大地,都是從這性海建立起來的。三昧六通,也是由這性海變出來的。」 尊者聞言,與徒眾,俱求剃度:尊者聽了,和他的徒眾,都要求出家。祖召五百羅漢,與授具戒,復以大法付之:十二祖召請了五百羅漢,給他授具足戒,又傳給他心印的法門。 得法已,遊化至西印土,轉付龍樹:他得法之後,至西印度那個國家,轉付心印法給龍樹菩薩。即現神變,化火焚身:自己現出三昧真火,就把身燒了。


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十四祖龍樹 / Fourteenth Patriarch - Nagarjuna

白話解釋

尊者,西天竺國人:這位尊者叫龍樹菩薩,是西天的第十四祖,南天竺國人。 因十三祖行化至彼:十三祖教化眾生,到了西天竺國這個地方,龍樹出迎,曰:深山孤寂,龍蟒所居;大德至尊,何枉神足?龍樹尊者在那兒修行,就出迎說了:「這深山是很孤獨的、很寂寞的,是龍和蟒蛇所住的地方。大德!您是很高尚、很尊貴的,您走錯路了?怎麼把您的腳走到這兒呢?」這個「神足」,不是神足通。 祖曰:吾非至尊,來訪賢者。十三祖說:「我不是最尊貴的,我到這兒,是來訪賢而有德的人。」 龍樹默念:龍樹在心裏說話;默念,就是在心裡講話。說:「您盡打妄語!您本來是個祖師,您說您不是至尊。」他心裏那麼念呢,祖知其意:十三祖也就知道他心裏在說什麼。 龍樹悔謝:龍樹因為十三祖知道他心裏打什麼妄想,就生懺悔心,於是向十三祖求懺悔而謝罪,說他不對了!好像你們英文說:「I am sorry! I am very stupid!」(我很抱歉,我很笨的!) 祖即與度脫,及五百龍眾,俱授具戒,付以大法:十三祖就度脫他。又有跟著龍樹菩薩修道的五百條龍,都受具足戒,並且傳給他心印法了。 得法已,行化至南印土:龍樹菩薩得法之後,行化至南印度。彼國之人,多信福業:這個地方的人,多數是修人天福報,不知道求佛法;就都是種福、求福。祖為說佛性義:十四祖為他們說,佛性、自性具足無量功德,具足一切的福報。眾聞,悉回初心:大家聽了之後,都迴小向大了,把他們以前那個求福業的心都改了。 復於座現身,如滿月輪:龍樹菩薩又在座上現出──身如滿月輪,身體像月亮的光一樣的。 眾中,有迦那提婆,曰:此是尊者,現佛性體相,以示我等。在大眾中,有位迦那提婆,就是十五祖,他就說了:「這是尊者現本來佛性的體和相,來教化我們。」 後付法於迦那提婆已,入月輪三昧,廣現神變,凝然示寂:龍樹菩薩把大法傳給十五祖迦那提婆後,就入了月輪定,現出神通,然後就凝然示寂了。


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十五祖迦那提婆 / Fifteenth Patriarch - Kanadeva

白話解釋

尊者,南天竺國人:十五祖迦那提婆尊者是南天竺國的人。 初求福業,兼樂辯論:「求福業」,上個禮拜天,恒華寫成「求祖業」。我想,「求祖業」不知道怎麼講好?求什麼祖業呢?他祖宗有很多錢,要遺產給他了?哎!講不通;求做祖師?也講不通。以後我看這個文開悟了,原來是個「福」。原來他是好求人天的福報,又好辯論。 後謁龍樹祖,祖知是智人,先遣侍者,以滿缽水,置於座前:他以後就去拜謁第十四祖龍樹菩薩。龍樹菩薩知道他是有智慧的人,就叫侍者用一個大碗裝滿水,安放在法座的前方。 尊者見之,即以一針投之而進,欣然契會:十五祖見到這一缽水,就到龍樹菩薩的座前,用一根針投入水裏。「欣然契會」,契會是契合了,就是龍樹菩薩知道他的意思,他也知道龍樹菩薩的意思。欣然契會,就是很歡喜的,大家以心印心了,他明白他,他也明白他。 祖即為說法,不起於座,現月輪相,唯聞其聲,不見其形:龍樹菩薩就告訴他要怎麼樣修行,怎麼樣用功。這時龍樹菩薩也沒有起於座,就在空中現出一個月輪相,只聽到空中有聲音,但是見不著他是什麼樣子。 尊者語眾曰:今此瑞者,師現佛性,表說法,非聲色也。十五祖就對大眾說,現在現這個瑞相,是「師現佛性」,這是龍樹菩薩所示現出來的佛性、佛的本性。「表說法,非聲色也」,表就是表這個說法,不一定用聲,也不一定用形色。不是單單聲音可以說法,沒有聲音也是可以說法。 祖即為剃度,付以大法:那麼龍樹菩薩就給十五祖剃度了,傳他心印妙法。尊者得法後,行化至迦毗羅國,轉付羅睺羅多:尊者得法之後,行化到迦毗羅國,這是印度一個國家的名字,就在那裏轉付心印法給羅羅多尊者。即入奮迅三昧,放八光而歸寂焉:就入師子奮迅三昧,放八種的光,然後圓寂了。


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十六祖羅睺羅多 / Sixteenth Patriarch - Rahulata

白話解釋

尊者,迦毗羅國人,父名梵摩淨德:打從釋迦牟尼佛一代一代傳下來,這是第十六代的祖師──羅睺羅多尊者。這位尊者是迦毗羅國的人,父親的名字叫梵摩淨德。 家有園樹,生耳如菌,味甚美:他家裏有一個花園子,花園裏有一棵樹,這樹上常常生一種木耳,像蘑菇那種菌,味道很甘美的。可是旁人不能摘這種的菌,唯淨德與次子羅睺羅多得取而食,隨取隨長:只有梵摩淨德和他的次子羅睺羅多兩位,才能摘來吃。他們兩個人隨摘這個菌下來,就又長出來。在這個情形之下,這棵樹變成一棵寶樹了。 因十五祖至其家,曰:汝年八十一,此樹不生耳。有一天,十五祖迦那提婆尊者就到他家裏來了。十五祖說:「等到你八十一歲的時候,這棵樹就不生木耳了。」 淨德聞,彌加嘆服且曰:弟子衰老,不能事師,願捨次子,隨師出家。那麼淨德聽見十五祖這樣對他說,就很佩服。究竟他為什麼佩服?這是因為他相信十五祖說的話,所以十五祖說什麼,他都相信。因此他就說了:「弟子我年齡已經衰老了,不能侍奉師父您,我願意把我這第二個兒子捨出來,隨著師父您出家修行。」 祖曰:昔如來記此子,當二五百年為大教主,今之相遇,蓋符宿因。十五祖就說:「在一千年前,釋迦牟尼佛曾經預言,你這個兒子,當第二個五百年的時候,會做一個世間上的大教主。我現在遇著你和你兒子,這都是前生的關係,都有宿世的因果,所以我才遇著你們了。」 即與剃度,執侍,後付以大法:就為羅睺羅多尊者剃度,他就出家了。他先給十五祖當侍者,之後,十五祖看他可以修行了,所以就傳給他心法。大法,就是心法。 得法已,行化至室羅筏城,轉付與僧伽難提,即安座歸寂:羅睺羅多尊者得法之後,就到印度室羅筏城,把法又傳給僧伽難提尊者了。於是就盤起腿來,結上雙跏趺坐,對大家說:「我要走了!」他就圓寂了。


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十七祖僧伽難提 / Seventeenth Patriarch - Sanghanandi

白話解釋

尊者,室羅筏城,寶莊王子也:這一位尊者是印度的第十七代傳心印教的祖師,名字叫僧伽難提尊者。他是室羅筏城的人,這座大城有一個國王寶莊王,寶莊王生了太子,就是這位尊者。 七歲即厭世樂:可是這位太子在七歲的時候,就不歡喜世間的快樂;為什麼世間的一切快樂,他都不歡喜呢?因為他善根深厚,不像我們一般人,這麼顛顛倒倒,隨波逐浪,在生死的苦海裏頭漂流。他願意不在生死的苦海裏頭漂流,所以就厭倦世間的快樂。願請出家:他常常要求父王讓他出家修行。因為這樣,他就常常打坐。七歲就開始練習打坐,結上雙跏趺坐;一坐就是一天,或者一宿,就這麼練習。 一夕,至大巖石窟,晏寂其中:有一天晚間,他到附近一個大巖石的窟窿裏頭去,自己一個人在那裏頭打坐。 十六祖至彼,見安坐入定,祖俟之,三七日,方從定起:在巖洞裏坐的時候,十六祖來這兒,看見這位僧伽難提尊者正打坐入定。於是十六祖就在這兒等,一等,等了二十一天,他才出定。 祖問:汝身定耶?心定耶?十六祖看他能坐二十一天,就問他:「你在這裏坐著,是身入定呢?還是心入定呢?」 曰:身心俱定。僧伽難提就說:「身也定,心也定。」並不是單單身定,而心不定;或單單心定,而身不定;這是身心俱定。他答得是很有道理的。 祖曰:不過十六祖還是願意和他辯論,來找他的毛病;就說:「身心俱定,何有出入:你身心都定,怎麼還有出定、入定呢?你身也定、心也定,就應該時時都在定裏頭,沒有出入。」 曰:雖有出入,不失定相。十七祖僧伽難提就說了,雖然有出入這種的境界,但是「不失定相」,我還是沒有失掉我入定的境界;沒有失掉,我就是醒來也還是和在定中是一樣的定相。 祖詰之:十六祖在這個時候說:「你不失定相,那你把定相給我看一看,看你這個定相是什麼樣子的?」這麼樣一問他。 豁然:僧伽難提尊者也就豁然開悟了;明白一切諸法本自清淨的,一切大定本無出入的,就開悟了!豁然,就是開悟了。即求度脫:於是尊者就求十六祖剃度他出家。 祖以右手擎缽,至梵宮取香飯:十六祖就用右手拿著缽,舉到天上大梵天王的梵宮殿,受天人的供養,把天上的香飯給取來。取來了,與尊者同食:於是說:「你吃飯啦!你坐這麼多天,我來供養供養你!」就要和尊者一起吃天上香積廚的香飯。 編按:以下乃弟子補述。 同時也吩咐徒眾們一起吃,可是這時徒眾們忽然生出厭惡的心,都沒辦法享用香飯。十六祖就說:「這不是我的過錯,是你們自己的業感。」隨即就分出一半的座位,命令僧伽難提尊者坐下與他一起用飯。徒眾們更起疑心了:怎麼沒有一點師父和弟子的規矩和輩分呢? 十六祖也知道大眾起疑心,就說:「你們沒辦法享用香飯,這是有原因的。你們要知道現在和我同座一起吃飯的人,就是過去莊嚴劫的婆羅樹王佛,應身來到這個世間教化眾生的,以後將為第十七代祖師。而你們就在莊嚴劫中,已經得到三果,可是沒證到無漏的人。」 大眾心想:師父您的神通力量,我們相信。可是您說他是過去婆羅樹王佛來的,我們怎麼會相信呢?這時候僧伽難提尊者知道大家生出輕慢心,就說:「佛在世時,世界平正,沒有丘陵、江河、溝洫,水也都很甘美的,草木滋長茂盛,國土豐盈,沒有八苦,人們都行十善。而現在佛入滅已八百多年了,世界丘墟不平,樹木枯悴。人沒有真正的信心,正念也很輕微的。不信真如佛性,只愛神通力量。」 編按:弟子補述至此。 尊者以右手,入金剛輪際,取甘露水,以琉璃器持至:那麼尊者在這時候也得到神通了,就伸右手到地底下的金剛輪際,那個地方的水都是甜的,和甘露一樣,用琉璃器皿拿水回來了。大約吃完了香飯,大家就喝點甘露水。大眾見到了,都很欽慕,馬上作禮懺悔。 祖付以大法,後至摩提國,得伽耶舍多:十六祖把法就傳給他了。後來他到摩提國,就把法傳給伽耶舍多尊者了。傳法之後,即右手攀樹而化:這時候,僧伽難提尊者就用右手攀到樹上,把身體懸在空中,就往生了!什麼病也沒有,就往生了,你說自在不自在?啊!這真是解脫了!你看,這很好玩的,用右手抓住那樹枝,就圓寂了!


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十八祖伽耶舍多 / Eighteenth Patriarch - Gayashata Of Magadha

白話解釋

尊者,摩提國人:十八祖伽耶舍多尊者,是摩提國人。 十七祖至其國,見一童子,持鑑造祖前:第十七祖到摩伽提國時,見到一個小孩子拿著一面鏡子,來到第十七祖這兒。鑑,就是鏡子。 祖問:汝幾歲耶?因為看到這小孩子,十七祖就問他說:「你幾歲了?」 曰:百歲。這小孩說:「我一百歲了!」哈哈! 祖曰:汝年尚幼,何言百歲?十七祖就說了:「你現在是很幼小的,為什麼說你有一百歲了呢?」 童曰:我不會理,正百歲耳。這個童子就說了:「我因為不明白、不了解真理,所以已經一百多歲了!」 祖曰:汝善機耶。十七祖就說:「你善於狡辯呢!」善機,就是善辯。 童曰:這童子就說:「佛言:若人生百歲,不會諸佛機:佛當初說,若人活了一百歲,卻不明白諸佛真理。真理,真正的道理;諸佛機,就是機宜。未若生一日,而得決了之:還不如活著一天,就明白這個真理,也就是聞道了。」儒家說「朝聞道,夕死可矣!」我若是在早晨聽見個道理,我就晚間死了都願意,都覺得是應該了!這就是不如生一日,而得決了之,明白真正的真理了。 十七祖又問:「你手中拿著鏡子,這表示什麼?」這個童子就用偈頌回答: 諸佛大圓鑑 內外無瑕翳 兩人同得見 心眼皆相似 這時他的父母聽到這話,就馬上將他捨出,教他隨著十八祖出家了。出家後,有一次,時聞風吹殿鈴聲:聽見風吹著殿前所掛的鈴噹的聲音。 祖問曰:鈴鳴耶?風鳴耶?十七祖又問這個小孩子:「是這個鈴有聲音出?還是風有聲音出呢?」 尊者曰:非風鈴鳴,我心鳴耳。這個小孩子就說:「這不是風有聲音,也不是鈴有聲音,是我的心裏有聲音。」在《六祖壇經》上說,風吹著幡,有人就問:「是風動?是幡動?」你說是風動嘛,那幡它也在那兒動;你說是幡動嘛,若沒有風,幡也不會動啊!你說風動,風你看不見它,那你是看見幡在那兒動嘍!所以一個和尚就說「風動」,一個和尚就說「幡動」,爭論不已。那麼六祖大師就說:「不是風動,不是幡動,仁者心動。」十八祖就說:「不是風在那兒鳴,也不是鈴在那兒鳴,是仁者心在那兒分別呢!所以也有風聲,也有鈴的聲音。」 祖曰:心復誰乎?十七祖說:「這個心是誰的?誰又是個心呢?」 答曰:俱寂靜故。這個小孩說:「心是寂靜的,沒有形象故。」 祖曰:善哉善哉,付以大法。十七祖聽見這個小孩這麼說──心俱寂靜故,就知道他懂得心是無動、無靜的道理了,所以說:「真好!真好!」於是就把這個以心印心、正法眼藏、教外別傳、不立文字的法,傳給十八祖了。 尊者後得鳩摩羅多,即踴身虛空,現十八變,火光三昧,自焚其身:尊者把法又傳給鳩摩羅多尊者之後,然後就往空中一跳,踴身虛空去了,現十八變的神通──身上出火、身下出水,身下出火、身上出水等等,在虛空裏頭互相顯現十八種的神通。又用火光三昧、火光定,把自己燒了。


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十九祖鳩摩羅多 / Nineteenth Patriarch - Kimarata

白話解釋

尊者,大月氏國人:十九祖叫鳩摩羅多尊者,這位尊者一聽到一個「佛」字,就很害怕的。他是大月氏國人,大月氏,是印度一個國家,他是個婆羅門的兒子。 因十八祖至:當第十八代的祖師到大月氏國時,見到這戶婆羅門家有不尋常之氣,就準備進去。 尊者問曰:是何徒眾?鳩摩羅多就問第十八代祖師說:「你是一個什麼宗教啊?從那兒來的?」 祖曰:是佛弟子。十八祖說:「我是佛的弟子!」 彼聞佛號,心神竦然,即時閉戶:鳩摩羅多尊者一聽見佛的名字,心裏就很害怕,趕快把門關上了。 祖良久扣其門:第十八代祖在門外等一等,等得久了,就用手敲他的門。 尊者曰:此舍無人。尊者在裏邊就說了:「這房子裏沒有人啦!」 祖曰:答無者誰?十八祖就問他說:「說『沒有人』的這個,是誰啊?」這是什麼?這是個鬼、是個妖怪啊?是個什麼?他答不出來了;這是什麼?你說「沒有人」,怎麼會有人答說「沒有人」呢? 尊者聞語,知是異人,遂開關延接:尊者聽見外邊問他說,說「沒有人」的這個是誰啊?知道這是一個特別的人,是個非常人,於是就把門開開了,請十八祖進來。 祖曰:第十八祖就對他說:「昔世尊記曰:滅後一千年,有大士出現於月氏國,紹隆玄化:以前釋迦牟尼佛在世的時候,授過記,佛滅後一千年的時候,有一個大菩薩出現在這個月氏國裏邊,接續興隆這種玄妙的教化。今汝值我,應斯嘉運:你現在遇到我了,應該就是這個預言記莂。」應,是應該;嘉運,就是這個預言記莂,這個就是嘉運。於是出家受具,付以大法:於是鳩摩羅多尊者就出家,受了具足戒。以後十八祖傳給他這個以心印心的妙法。 尊者得法已,後得闍夜多:十九祖得法之後,後來得到闍夜多尊者,就是第二十祖。即於座上,以指爪剺面,如紅蓮開,放大光明,照耀四眾,而入寂滅:傳法之後,就在座上用手指頭劃面,面上就像開紅蓮華那樣,又放出很大的光明,照耀到比丘、比丘尼、優婆塞、優婆夷等四眾弟子,然後就入滅了。


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二十祖闍夜多 / Twentieth Patriarch - Jayata

白話解釋

尊者,北天竺國人:二十祖闍夜多尊者,他接第十九代祖師的法,是北印度的人。 聞十九祖語,頓釋所疑:十九祖來教化他,他聽見十九祖說的話,心裏所懷疑的問題都解決了,沒有懷疑了! 祖曰:十九祖就對他說:「汝雖已信,而未明業從惑生:你雖然已經生一種信心了,但你還沒有知道、沒有明白業是從迷惑、疑惑中生出來的。」人是起惑、造業、受報──將來就受果報的。惑因識有,識依不覺,不覺依心:這個惑,是因為你有分別心,才有迷惑、疑惑。「識依不覺」,而分別心又是依著「不覺」生出來的。不覺,就是不明白。這個地方所講的,就是「一念不覺生三細」的道理,因為無明,生出業相、現相、轉相這三種細相。那麼有了惑,不明白真理,就會造出一些罪業;迷惑、疑惑又是由分別心起的;分別心則是由「不覺」那兒生出來的。「不覺依心」,不覺是依著「愚癡心」生的。 心本清淨,無生滅、無造作、無報應、無勝負:這個智慧本源的心,它根本就是清淨的,什麼也沒有;所以「無生滅」,它本來是無生滅;「無造作」,也什麼造作都沒有的;「無報應」,也沒有一個報應;「無勝負」,也不和任何人來爭勝負。寂寂然、靈靈然:寂寂,就是靜了又靜、靜了又靜。「靈靈然」,雖然靜了又靜,但是它還無所不知、無所不照的。汝若入此法門,可與諸佛同矣:你若能得到這種的法門,就可以和諸佛在一起共同生活了。一切善惡有為無為,皆如夢幻:所有的善法、惡法、有為法、無為法,這都是像在作夢,又像是泡影一樣的。 尊者領旨,叩求出家,受具,祖付以大法:闍夜多尊者領納了十九祖的法旨,即刻就叩求出家,受具足戒。十九祖就把心印的法門傳給了他。 得法已,至羅閱城,轉付婆修盤頭:尊者得法了之後,就到印度一個叫羅閱的城,轉付大法給婆修盤頭尊者。傳法之後,即於座上,奄然歸寂:就在這個法座上邊,很自然地就圓寂了。奄然,就是很自然的。


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二十一祖婆修盤頭 / Twenty-First Patriarch - Vasubandhu

白話解釋

今天這一段文,各位要特別注意!為什麼?今天這一段文很容易被口頭禪的人盜用來騙人,所以你們要知道,第二十代的祖師和第二十一代的祖師,所互相問答的詞句、言語,他們的用意在什麼地方?不是說我們也學會了這樣講話,就可以去騙騙人,冒充祖師;這是不可以的。要真正夠資格,才可以這樣講話;不夠資格,是不可以這樣講話的。怎麼樣叫夠資格呢?他是傳佛心印,荷擔如來家業的人。如果不是荷擔如來家業的人,那麼絕對不可以這樣講話。 尊者,羅閱城人:這位是西天的第二十一代的祖師──婆修盤頭尊者,他是印度羅閱城的人。 一食不臥:這一位尊者,他在沒有遇著第二十代祖師之前,就一天吃一餐;不臥,也常坐不臥,就是「不倒單」。有的人誤會說「不倒單」就是「不睡覺」,這不是的;不倒單不是不睡覺,是「坐著睡」。人不睡覺是不容易的,所以不要混淆不清。有很多語焉不詳的人,或者食而不知其味的人,或者囫圇吞棗的人,都以為「不倒單」就是不睡覺,這根本就沒有明白「不倒單」的意思。你要知道,人就是人,你若說不睡覺,這是辦不到的事情。吃飯、睡覺、穿衣服,這三種是日用所不可少的,無論哪一個人都需要的;所以說「不倒單」是「不睡覺」,這是以訛傳訛,是絕對錯誤的。 那麼我在臺灣還聽見有人批評水果和尚(廣欽老和尚),批評什麼呢?說:「哎呀!」這第一聲「哎呀!」我說:「怎麼了?」「他吃粥了!」說水果和尚現在吃粥了。這個意思就是怎麼樣呢?說水果和尚現在吃粥,這就犯了瀰天大罪了,破戒了、開齋了、墮落了,意思就是這樣。 其實這是很平常的一件事,他那麼大年紀,吃粥了,這是很應該的。他就是吃粥、不吃粥,也是他自己的事情,旁人沒有權利干涉他這個問題。他吃飯和不吃飯,都是他自己的願力,並不是說佛的戒律不准人吃飯、不准人吃粥,沒有這個道理的。沒這個道理,為什麼人大驚小怪地就來批評他不對了呢?這就因為「習焉不察便成風」。人都習慣知道他吃水果的,那麼現在一吃了粥,這可就有罪了,認為這是比殺人、放火、去打劫所犯的罪還大了!甚至於偷偷地和我講:「可不要叫旁人知道啊!」你看!為什麼就這樣?就因為「習焉不察便成風」,也不知道這個所以然,也不知道修行應該怎麼樣修行,也不知道他吃粥是自己的本份。 他既然是個人,他就有吃飯的資格、有喝粥的資格。那麼自己若不願意吃飯、不願意喝粥,那是他自己的事情!你旁人沒有權力來干涉他,說你不可以吃飯、你不可以吃粥;這就是因為不懂佛法,所以亂加批評。 又說這個水果和尚是個「啞羊僧」,不會講經,他什麼也不會講;就這樣子批評他。這更是不懂佛法!真正的說法的人,不需要用口來說,「以行於世,示之而已」,以他的行為來表現。他的行為,就是說法;他的思想和作風,就是在那兒說法呢!這叫「處無為之事,行不言之教,萬物作焉而不辭,生而不有,為而不恃,功而弗居。」這是聖人才能做到的事情,可是凡夫不認識,就妄加批評、妄加推測,你說多麼可憐呢! 所以「常坐不臥」,並不是不睡覺,各位要注意!「一食」,就一天只吃一餐。為什麼要吃一食呢?因為當初佛在世的時候,所有的比丘都吃一餐,所謂「日中一食,樹下一宿,慎勿再矣!」又要去世資財,世間的私財都不要了,這樣才是一個真正沒有貪心的人,真正修行的人。所以我們出家之後,絕對不要把錢看得重要了!要看金錢像糞土一樣,很邋遢的;不要一天到晚作發財的夢、作錢的夢,在那兒念玆在玆:「天命之謂錢,率性之謂錢,修道之謂錢;錢也者,不可須臾離也。」啊,不要這樣子! 六時禮佛:這位婆修盤頭尊者白天也拜佛,晚間也拜佛;晝三時拜佛,夜三時拜佛。為什麼他吃一餐呢?就因為拜佛,沒有時間吃飯了,所以吃一餐;為什麼他不臥呢?也因為拜佛,沒有時間躺著了。這是我給他下的註解,你若不信,你把他請出來問一問,是不是這麼回事?為眾所歸:他這樣用功、這樣修行,大家都知道他也吃一餐,又常坐不臥,又六時禮佛,所以大家都很讚歎他,對這位老修行,佩服得五體投地。 二十祖至彼:偏偏就來了行家!他在這兒這麼樣用功修道,就來了作家──就來了善知識!至彼,到這地方。到這地方怎麼樣呢?問其眾曰:來問他這些徒眾。為什麼他要像下面這樣來問他們呢?因為第二十代祖師,知道這一位就是應該做第二十一代祖師的,所以要破他的執著。為了破他的執著,就先對他這一些信眾講:「此頭陀能修梵行,可得佛道乎?」頭陀,因為他日中一食,常坐不臥,又六時禮佛,行這頭陀行。梵行,就是清淨行的人。二十祖說:「這一位行抖擻的頭陀行的人,他能得到佛道嗎?他會不會成佛呢?」這樣問問他這些徒眾、信眾。 眾曰:我師精進,何故不可?這些個信眾因為對他很崇拜、很恭敬的,所以二十祖這麼樣一說,大家就說了:「我的師父這麼樣精進,是吃一餐,又常坐不臥,又晝夜六時都來拜佛。這樣朝也精進、夜又精進,身也精進、心也精進,晝夜六時常精進;身心性命都是不休息的,豁出性命也不休息的,這樣修行,什麼不能得?什麼都可以得到!」 祖曰:汝師與道遠矣!第二十祖一聽,就說了:「你們的師父離佛道還遠得很,還差得十萬八千里啊!」 眾曰:尊者蘊何德行,而譏我師?他這些徒眾一聽,就很不佩服了;就說:「尊者,你有什麼德行?你身上蘊藏著什麼道德啊?你有什麼資格來批評我師父啊?你譏諷我師父,看不起我師父,你有什麼資格,你有什麼德行呢?」譏,是譏諷,就是看不起。翻譯成白話就是:「你有什麼道德?你看不起我師父啊?你看不起我師父!你敢譏諷我師父!」 祖曰:我不求道。二十祖就說了:「我不求道了。」若是永嘉大師所說的那個「絕學無為閒道人」了,這才可以說「我不求道」;如果不是閒道人,不是證果的人,不是真正荷擔如來家業的人,沒有資格說我不求道了,我是無修無證了。所以說:「供養十方三世諸佛,也不如供養一個無修無證者。」無修無證者,才可以說「我不求道」。亦不顛倒:我不求道是不求道,可是我不會見著財,就變了財迷;見著色,就變了色迷;見著氣,就變了氣迷;見著酒,就變成個酒迷;我都不會被這四種酒色財氣所迷了! 我不禮佛:我不常常地拜佛。不禮佛,不是說見著佛不叩頭,不是這樣的!這是說我不是六時來禮佛。你們各位要清楚這個文!這個文說「我不禮佛」,不要就以為:「哦!這個二十祖都不拜佛了,你叫我拜什麼?拜泥巴、木頭?」不是這樣的。「我不禮佛」,是說我不是在六時之中都拜佛。亦不輕慢:可是我也不生輕慢的心,我也不看不起哪一位,我看一切眾生皆有佛性,皆堪作佛。這個註解要注意的,就在這個地方。你不要看著這個文,心想:「嘿!二十祖都不拜佛的,這三步一拜,一點用也沒有啊!」不是這麼回事啊! 我不長坐:我是願意坐著,就坐著;願意躺著,就躺著。亦不懈怠:可是我不會常常躺到那個地方,就懶惰得不得了;甚至於吃飯,也是因為肚子餓、肚子不答應;肚子若答應,我連飯都不願意吃了!懶得這個樣子。不是這個樣子!這是說我雖然不是在那裏長坐不臥,但是我也不會懈怠。 我不一食:我不一定吃一餐,亦不雜食:可是我也不多吃,不吃點這個、那個,甚至有五六樣、或者七八樣、十幾樣的東西在那地方吃。好像我們中午吃飯的時候,你把眼睛睜得大大的,比牛眼睛都大,一到這兒:「哦,這個味道一定好,我拿多一點;哦,這個味道不好,我不要這個!」不選擇、不分別、不雜食,有什麼,就吃什麼,我不亂吃。我不想:「喔!這個味道一定是很不錯的,我試一試!」不是這樣的,心裏沒有這個分別。雜食,是好吃的東西;不雜食,就是不撿選好吃的東西來吃。 心無所希:我心裏沒有一個「所希」。這個「希」,就是希望,也就是求;無所希,就是沒有一個要希望、要求的東西。名之曰道:這就是道了! 尊者聞已,發無漏智:第二十一祖在旁邊也聽見了;因為二十祖不是直接對他講的,而是對他那些信徒、徒眾、崇拜者說的。這若是「我相」很重的人,一聽見這些話:「哎!你現在要挑撥離間,令我的徒弟都不相信我了?好東西!我打你一頓!」無明火就發出來了。他不是這樣子的! 修行要真正、實實在在地修行,不是馬馬虎虎。不是我拜拜佛、裝模作樣的;我吃一餐,掛一個修行的招牌在這兒:「你們知道嗎?我是一天吃一餐的!你們知道嗎?我是長坐不臥的!你們知道嗎?我一天到晚都拜佛的!」盡敲鑼打鼓,到街上去賣修行的招牌;所以招來很多信徒到這地方來:「這個人是老修行啊 !你真是活佛、活菩薩啊!」叩頭頂禮,又三拜的;人說一拜,還不行,還要三拜!就因為好像見了真佛似的。修行不是這樣的,不是盡表示自己有修行、表示自己有道德,這樣才能得到「無漏智慧」。 這「無漏智慧」,是真要斷欲去愛,身心放下,什麼都沒有了;什麼都沒有了,也不求名了,也不求利了。再給你們講一個,沒有煩惱也是「無漏的智慧」。煩惱的根本,是從什麼地方來的?就是從你的「欲」那兒來的。你若沒有欲了,什麼煩惱都沒有了。為什麼你有煩惱?就是因為你欲沒有斷!你若斷欲了,就「性定魔伏朝朝樂,妄念不起處處安」,這是很清楚的。你要是真沒有欲了,就沒有煩惱了,就自在了!一自在,一切自在;一解脫,一切解脫;一無障礙,一切無障礙。就是在這個地方!這叫「無漏智」。 祖乃付法:第二十祖就傳心印的法門給二十一祖了。後至那提國,得摩拏羅:後來二十一祖到那提國,把心印法傳給摩拏羅尊者了,即踴身高半由旬,屹然而住:於是他就往上一踴、一竄,有幾十丈高。半由旬,一個大由旬是八十里,中由旬是六十里,小由旬是四十里;那麼就算四十里,都和現在飛機飛得差不多高。他這麼往上一飛,也沒有翅膀,就踴身虛空,到半由旬高的虛空去了,就在虛空那兒站著。四眾仰瞻,虔請,復坐,跏趺而逝:四眾都這麼抬著頭望著:「哎!奇怪了!奇怪了!」又虔誠地請他回來,大家說:「師父啊!你快回來啦!我還沒有明白佛法呢!我還需要學多一點佛法。」所以這位第二十一祖又坐起來,結上跏趺坐,就往生了。


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二十二祖摩拏羅 / Twenty-Second Patriarch - Manorhita

白話解釋

尊者,那提國常自在王之子也:摩拏羅尊者,是從釋迦牟尼佛那兒算起第二十二代的祖師。這一位尊者,他是那提國的人,他的父親就叫常自在王。這位常自在王是非常有智慧的人,也是非常通情達理的一個人,也篤信佛教;所以他生這個兒子的時候,就覺得這個兒子是很不平凡的。 年三十,會婆修祖至彼國:這位尊者年到三十歲,就遇見婆修盤頭尊者。當時婆修盤頭尊者到了他的國家,覺得與這位國王很有緣,於是就來見這個國王。 王問祖曰:羅閱城土與此何異?國王就問婆修盤頭尊者說:「你從羅閱城那兒來的,羅閱城那個地方和我們這個國家,有什麼不同呢?」 祖曰:彼土曾有三佛出世。婆修盤頭尊者就說了:「在羅閱城那個地方,有過三位佛出世。」這三位佛,總起來可以說是過去佛、現在佛、未來佛。不單羅閱城有三位佛出世,哪一個國家都會有佛出世。今王國有二師化導:現在國王你的國家,會有兩位大導師,來化導你這個國土。這兩位導師,是佛早就給授過記的。 王曰:二師者誰?國王說:「這兩位導師是誰?」 祖曰:佛記第二五百年,有二神力大士,出家繼聖。即王之次子摩拏羅,是其一也:婆修盤頭尊者說:「佛授記佛入涅槃後,第二個五百年,有兩位有神通、有大力量的大行之士,他們兩位都會出家,繼續佛的心印法,作第二十一代和第二十二代的祖師。這兩位祖師中,常自在王你第二個兒子摩拏羅,就是其中之一。」吾雖德薄,敢當其一:第二十一代祖師婆修盤頭尊者又自謙地說:「我婆修盤頭雖然沒有什麼道德,可是也被佛授記了,所以也是其中的一個。」 王曰:這位常自在王就說了:「誠如尊者所言,當捨此子作沙門:尊者,我知道您不打妄語,您所說的話是誠誠實實的。我現在就把這個兒子布施給您作徒弟,作個勤修戒定慧、息滅貪瞋癡的沙門。」 祖曰:善哉大王,能遵佛旨。婆修盤頭尊者就說:「大王,你真是個很聰明、很明理的人,你真是篤信佛教的人!好得很。大王!你能遵守佛預先授記的預言。」 即與薙落授具,付以大法:於是二十一祖就為摩拏羅落髮,授具足戒。又把以心印心、教外別傳的法門,傳給摩拏羅尊者了。尊者得法後,付鶴勒那,即跏趺奄化:「尊者」,就是摩拏羅。他得法之後,又把法傳給鶴勒那尊者。於是就結上跏趺坐,坐在那地方就無疾而化──什麼病都沒有,就圓寂、往生了。


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二十三祖鶴勒那 / Twenty-Third Patriarch - Haklena

白話解釋

今天講的是第二十三代祖師。由釋迦牟尼佛算起來,到這位鶴勒那尊者是第二十三代。我們不是說,就聽這一代或是多少代祖師,聽了就過去了。不是的,我們聽每一個祖師的行為、相狀,要問問自己:「我是不是要效法這一位祖師?我是不是要真正做一個祖師的好弟子?」要這樣問自己。也就好像我們是父母親的子女,天天應該想一想:「我是要做父母親的一個好兒、好女呢?還是做一個不孝順的兒女,敗家的兒女呢?」要這樣想。我們身為佛教徒,要「見賢思齊焉,見不賢而內自省」。 尊者,月氏國人:這位鶴勒那尊者,是印度月氏國的人。年二十二歲出家,常有鶴眾相隨:他二十二歲才出家。這位尊者常常有一班仙鶴跟著他,不論他走到什麼地方,鶴就跟到什麼地方,在上面這麼嘰嘰喳喳的,好像和他講話似的。你說奇怪不奇怪?我們後山這兒也有仙鶴,可是我們這仙鶴,哈!牠們沒有跟著人,因為這鶴勒那尊者沒來;他若來,也會跟隨著他。 尊者問二十二祖曰:以何方便,令彼解脫?因為這些鶴和他有緣,所以這位尊者就問二十二祖:「請問祖師,用什麼方便法門,才能令這一群鶴得到人身?得到解脫?」得到解脫,就是離苦得樂。解脫,本來也沒有人綁著你,為什麼你不解脫呢?就因為你有執著。你有執著,所以就自己把自己綑上了;好像蠶蟲做繭,自綑其身。本來沒有一個解脫、不解脫,是你自己生出一種執著,自綑其身。 祖曰:我有無上法寶,汝當聽受,化未來際。二十二代祖師就對鶴勒那尊者說:「我有無上的法寶,沒有比這個法再高的了,沒有再駕乎其上的了。可是你要聽,你要接受,那你將來教化盡未來際的眾生,用都用不完的。」 而說偈曰:那麼第二十二代祖師就給他說一首偈頌,這偈頌怎麼說呢? 心隨萬境轉 轉處實能幽 隨流認得性 無喜亦無憂 心隨萬境轉:你心若隨萬境轉,就有種種的境界現前。你心若不隨境轉,以心轉境,而境不能轉心,心把這個境轉過來,那就是如如的自性了!如如不動,了了常明。 你的心如果隨萬境轉,轉處實能幽:可是就在轉處,你要能得到這個妙處。這個「幽」,就是不可思議的境界,就是一種妙處;就是「見事省事出世間,見事迷事墮沉淪」,「眼觀形色內無有,耳聽塵事心不知」。你「念動百事有,念止萬事無」,「心止念絕是真富貴,私欲斷盡是真福田」,所以主要就是心不為萬境轉。萬事萬物都在說法,世間沒有一樣不是在說法的,就看你會聽不會聽,就看你明白不明白?你若明白了,就是心能轉物;你若不明白,就是被物所轉。 你若追名逐利,就為境界所搖動,所謂「名利小事人人好,生死大事無人防;心淨是福人不想,煩惱是罪個個貪。」你看!哪一個家庭都有八齣戲,爭爭吵吵,煩煩惱惱,斤斤較較,都是在那兒胡鬧呢!那麼在這個時候,你若能明白了,知道萬物在那兒說法,這都是方便法門,都是叫你對境無心,人轉境,而境不能轉人,有真正的智慧,有真正的定力。所以說「轉處實能幽」,轉處,就能得到這個不可思議的境界。 怎麼得呢?隨流認得性:你隨順世間法,而能明白自性是不生不滅、不垢不淨、不增不減的,自性是清淨、無罣無礙的;這不是在口頭上那麼說,真是要體驗到,真是要明白箇中的消息,那才算呢! 這隨流認得性,不是教你隨波逐流,追逐五欲;而是要「隨緣不變,不變隨緣」,抱定我們三大宗旨。我們三大宗旨是什麼?就是「凍死不攀緣,餓死不化緣,窮死不求緣。」我們要是能「隨緣不變,不變隨緣,抱定我們三大宗旨,捨命為佛事,造命為本事,正命為僧事;即事明理,明理即事,推行祖師一脈心傳。」能這樣,這就「隨緣認得性」,你就認識自己本有的佛性,明心見性了。 無喜亦無憂:這時候,也沒有什麼憂愁,也沒有什麼快樂,時時都在如如不動、了了常明裏頭,所以說無喜亦無憂。 時鶴眾聞偈,飛鳴而去:這時候,這一些白鶴聽見這個偈頌,心開意解,於是就在鳴叫中飛跑了。 尊者既得法,行化至中印土,轉付師子比丘:鶴勒那尊者得到這個心印法後。以後在中印度,又將這心法轉付師子比丘。於是即現十八變,而歸寂:在空中就現了十八變,他在虛空裏站著,又在虛空裏躺著、坐著,又在虛空裏身上邊出水、身下邊出火,身下邊出水、身上出火,這種種變化莫測十八變的境界。然後他在虛空裏就圓寂了。


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二十四祖師子 / wenty-Fourth Patriarch - Lion

白話解釋

第二十四代的祖師,叫師子比丘、師子尊者。這位尊者證得無相菩提,一切自在,一切如如。 尊者,中印土人:他是中印度的人。 問二十三祖曰:他遇著二十三祖鶴勒那尊者,問道:「我欲求道,當用何心?」各位應該想一想,二十四祖這麼問,那我們設身處境,也像二十四祖的「我欲求道」,我想要求這個了生死、脫輪迴,斷煩惱、證菩提的覺道,「當用何心」,我應該用什麼心? 祖曰:汝欲求道,無所用心。二十三祖就答覆他說:「你想要求道嗎?你真要想求道的話,什麼心也不要用。要無心,你若能懂得無心了,這就是道。」 曰:既無用心,誰作佛事?師子尊者聽這個道理,還沒有懂,所以就來辯論。說既然什麼心也不要用了,那麼作佛事的又是誰呢?他以為這是辯才無礙,就這麼和二十三祖辯論。 祖曰:汝若有用,即非功德。二十三祖又說:「你若有所用心,還有造作呢!沒有到那無功用道上;你還是著相,有形有相的。那都不是你自性裏邊的真正功德。汝若無作,即是佛事:假使你沒有所用心,掃一切法,離一切相,那就是大作佛事;不是你在那兒念經、拜佛,或者禮懺,或者作種種的功課,那才是佛事。你要是真正修道,什麼都沒有了,掃一切法,離一切相;一空一切空,一離一切離,一淨一切淨,一正一切正。」二十三祖這麼一說,師子尊者馬上開悟了,頓入佛慧。 因付以大法:於是二十三祖就把心印的大法傳給他了。那麼每一篇都說「大法」,這個大法,就是佛教裏頭最重要的一件事:所謂「傳佛心印,以心印心」。佛說:「我有正法眼藏,涅槃妙心,實相無相,教外別傳,已咐囑摩訶迦葉矣!」這就叫「大法」。 遊化至罽賓國,轉付與婆舍斯多:以後,師子尊者到處去遊方教化眾生,到罽賓國──這是當時一個國家的名字,有的說是雲南,有的又說是從西伯利亞那兒去,這不需要考證它,總而言之,是當時一個國家。尊者就在那兒傳法給第二十五祖婆舍斯多尊者了。 後王秉劍至尊者所,問曰:師得蘊空否?傳法之後,因為當時這個國家有二個外道,學種種幻術,想要謀反叛亂,就偽裝成出家人,潛入王宮。事發敗露,這個國家的國王誤以為是出家人所為,就要毀滅佛教。這個國王,手裏拿著一把寶劍,到師子尊者住的地方,問他:「你已經得到五蘊皆空了嗎?色受想行識,你都空了沒空啊?」 曰:已得蘊空。因為師子比丘不打妄語,也不會說客氣話,國王來問他,他就說真話了:「我已經得到五蘊皆空,我照見五蘊皆空,知道『色即是空,空即是色,受想行識亦復如是』了。」 王曰:離生死否?國王又問:「你離生死了沒有?」就是你了沒了生死啊? 曰:已離生死。他答覆說:「我生死已經了了,沒有生死了!」 王曰:既離生死,可施我頭。國王就說:「你既然生死都不成問題,生死都了,那請你把頭布施給我。」 曰:我身非有,何吝於頭?師子比丘說:「我連身體都沒有了,這個頭我有什麼捨不得的?你就砍掉好了。」 王即揮刃斷尊者首,白乳湧高數尺:這個國王就用劍一斬,把師子比丘的頭給斬下來了。可是把頭斬下來,他不流血,而是由脖子上流出白漿,好像牛奶似的;這白漿竄高湧出,有數尺那麼高。各位想一想:這是什麼意思?等想清楚了,再來告訴我。 王之右臂旋亦墮地:這個國王因為右手拿著寶劍,斬了師子比丘的頭,這是殺聖人;這叫「弒父、弒母、弒阿羅漢、破和合僧、出佛身血」,這是犯了五無間的罪,所以他的右臂馬上就斷了,掉到地下。


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二十五祖婆舍斯多 / Twenty-Fifth Indian Patriarch - Basiasita

白話解釋

尊者,罽賓國人:婆舍斯多尊者是二十五祖,他是罽賓國的人。 初,母夢得神劍,因而有孕:起初他的母親作了一個夢,在夢裏頭有一把神劍。一作這個夢之後,就有孕了。你說這個夢是真的、是假的?說是真的,又是個夢;若是假的,又有孕了。所謂夢,若是明明了了、清清楚楚的,神識並沒有昏迷,這種夢可以說是一個真夢;真就是夢,夢就是真。你信它是真的,也是個夢;你不信它是真的,還是個夢。 既誕,拳其左手:等他出生之後,左手攢著拳頭。他的左手不張開,你就怎麼想法子要他張開,他也不張開。雖然是個小孩子,但是力量也很大的,就是不張手,拳頭好像長到一起似的。大約他的父母已經想了很多方法,要把他的手張開,可是方法都不靈。於是等到他二十歲時,父引見師子祖,問其故:他父親沒有辦法了,就去找二十四祖師子比丘,請問他緣故。 祖即以手接曰:可還我珠。本來他父親問,什麼緣故這個孩子攢著拳頭不伸開呢?可是師子尊者並不答覆他這個問題,而是伸開手,好像要接什麼東西似的,就說:「你把我的寶珠還給我。」尊者遽開手奉珠:遽,就很快地。婆舍斯多尊者遽然間把手張開來,就把珠子送給二十四祖師子尊者。 你看!師子尊者就知道這孩子手裏拿著他的一顆珠子。那顆如意珠,是給婆舍斯多尊者偷去了?不是偷去,這是做為一個預先授記。他們兩位早就約定好了,說:「你手裏拿著這顆珠子,到那兒托生去;我到那個地方,就會和你要這顆珠子,你就還給我,那麼你父親就會把你布施出家了。如果不是這樣,你的父親一定捨不得你,不讓你出家。所以我們兩個人預先這麼定好方法;到時候,我和你要珠子,你就把手張開還給我。」婆舍斯多尊者說:「好,就這麼辦!」就這麼辦呢,他父親也很懂事情的,知道若要了解他的手為什麼不張開,就必須要問師子尊者。 遂捨出家:他父親一看,有這麼個奇怪的事情──他手裏拿顆珠子,師子尊者一要,他就給他了!這不用說,他一定是和師子尊者有因緣的,於是就送他出家了。 祖為薙度曰:師子尊者就給他落髮,就說:「吾師密有懸記:我的師父第二十三代祖師,早就對我說過。懸記,就是預言,很早很早就預先說,將來會有一個什麼事情發生;到時候,看靈不靈驗。這懸記是什麼呢?罹難:說是我將來弘揚佛法,會遇著一種災難。可是不要緊,正法眼藏,轉付與汝:我現在先把教外別傳,實相離相,以心印心,不立文字的這種法門,傳授給你。」 得法後,潛隱山谷:婆舍斯多尊者得法之後,就隱遁到山裏頭去修行,不見人。國王天德,迎請供養:這個時候,那個國家的國王叫天德,到山裏頭請他出來到宮裏供養。 後王太子,德勝即位:以後這個國王的太子德勝,繼承帝位的時候,信外道法,致難尊者:他不信佛了,信外道法。所以難怪現在很多人信外道,因為那時早就有這個外道法。德勝王就去難為這位婆舍斯多尊者,給他困難,說師子尊者已遭王難,怎麼有可能傳法給你呢?出衣示之:婆舍斯多尊者就拿出佛傳下的衣缽,給德勝王看。 王命焚衣,五色相鮮,薪盡如故:德勝王就命令他的臣下,把衣拿去用火燒了。可是這衣越用火燒,它的顏色越鮮明,現出青黃赤白黑這五色。等到火都燒完了,這衣還完全沒燒到。 王即追悔,致禮:德勝王一看這樣情形,這衣燒不了,於是生大慚愧心,知道自己做錯了;所以就向婆舍斯多尊者頂禮,求懺悔,說:「我以前相信外道,這是不對的,我現在也要皈依三寶,拜尊者為師。」 後付法衣於密多:以後婆舍斯多尊者又把這衣和法,傳給密多尊者。即現神變,化火自焚:於是就現大神變,自己化成三昧真火,把自己燒了。燒了以後,你猜怎樣?平地舍利,可高一尺:他的舍利從地面算起,有一尺多高,有那麼多的舍利。你看!這如果沒有真的功夫,怎麼會有那麼多的舍利呢?所以就贊歎他──


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二十六祖不如密多 / Twenty-Sixth Patriarch - Purnamitra

白話解釋

尊者,南印土天德王之次子:第二十六代祖師是不如密多尊者,這位祖師是南印度天德王的第二個兒子。投婆舍祖出家:他拜第二十五代祖師出家。 祖問曰:汝欲出家,當為何事?第二十五代祖師婆舍斯多尊者就問他:「你想出家,出家做什麼事?」 曰:我若出家,不為俗事。他說:「我若出家了之後,世間一切的事情我都不做了,不做一切世俗的事。」 祖曰:當為何事?二十五祖又問他:「那你不做世俗的事情,要做什麼事情呢?」 曰:當為佛事。不如密多尊者就說:「我應該做的,就是佛事。」各位想一想:不如密多尊者出家不為俗事,所謂不為俗事,就是沒有什麼情感,沒有情、沒有愛了!斷欲去愛,脫俗離塵,把一切世俗人所願意做,所願意求的事情,他都不做了;他要做出世的事情,大做佛事。 什麼叫大做佛事?譬如我們在這兒翻譯經典,把不同的文字翻譯成相同的文字,相同的文字翻譯成不同的文字,這也是佛事。我們講經說法、念佛、上殿過堂,這都叫做佛事。我們常常打坐、用功修行,這都叫佛事。我們把妄想儘量掃除,制心一處,無事不辦,令我們的心念清淨了,這都是大做佛事。你能不打妄想,能沒有欲念了,那真是大做佛事,所以說:「心止念絕真富貴,私欲斷盡真福田。」 廣做佛事,不做俗事,這是不如密多尊者所說的話。我們雖然相隔幾千年到現在,但言猶在耳──不如密多尊者所說的話還存在,不如密多尊者所行的事還存在,不如密多尊者的志願還是存在的。我們現在出家,要「見賢思齊焉」,要效法祖師的行為,效法祖師的思想,效法祖師的道德,效法祖師的志願。所謂「舜何人也?予何人也?有為者亦若是。」我們可以把它改成:「祖師何人也?我何人也?」我要是好好地修行,將來也是開悟證果的人。所以要「見賢思齊焉,見不賢而內自省也」,見著那不好的,我們自己迴光返照想一想,哦!我可不要學這樣的人,我一定要改過自新,改過遷善;我出家不要做一個只是名字出家,而內裏頭沒有出家的出家人;我要實實在在,做一個真實的出家人。所以這是很要緊、很要緊的。 那麼婆舍斯多尊者,問不如密多尊者為何要出家,也就是叫他回憶前塵,想起他以前的善根,他是不做俗事,大做佛事的一個人。 祖付以大法:第二十五祖聽見他這麼說,於是就把心印的妙法,了生脫死的大法傳給他了。 遊化至東印土:他遊行教化到東印土那個地方。彼王名堅固,奉外道師長爪梵志:當時有個堅固王,他恭敬一個長爪的外道,事奉這位外道為師父。梵志,就是修清淨行的。長爪梵志是不剪指甲的,指甲很長很長。這叫個什麼,你們知道嗎?若按照我來說,這就是躲懶偷安!你看,指甲不剪,當然不能做什麼事情了!甚至於吃飯,都要人家餵他。因為若不餵他,不給他東西吃,他一動彈,就把這手指甲碰壞了!他保護他的手指甲,像保護他的生命那樣,說:「哎呀!不能動啊!我就這樣子!」這就像密勒日巴或裸形外道,修那種什麼法,保留他的指甲。這國王一看:「這真是神人!你看他!」其實他也不能幹什麼,就那麼懶懶地藉修道來養命,在那個地方什麼也不幹,也不利益人,他自了漢也不夠! 即以幻法,化大山於尊者頂上:這個梵志有幻術,會變戲法,有所謂魔通、鬼通,而不是神通。就像密勒日巴專門說出家人不如他,他超過出家人,他和佛是一樣的。這種大我慢、這種邪見,令一般人產生錯覺。那麼這個長爪梵志,也有他的魔術、幻術。幻,就是不實在的、虛妄的幻法。因為怕這不如密多尊者來到他的國家,國王會改變信仰,所以他就化出一座大山,壓到尊者的頭上。 尊者指之,忽在彼眾頂上:尊者用手指這麼一指,啊!這座大山,就又跑到這些長爪梵志的徒眾,和他自己的頭頂上去了。彼眾怖懼,投祖:長爪梵志的這些徒眾就都怕了!所以都投向二十六祖了。祖再指之,化山隨滅:祖師又用他的手指一指這座大山,這大山就沒有了,因為它是虛妄的嘛! 乃為王演法,俾趣真乘:在這時候,不如密多尊者就為堅固王說法,令國王也得到真正的大乘法門。 後得般若多羅,即辭王曰:以後他把心印的法,傳給般若多羅尊者了,就和這個國王告辭說:「吾化緣已終,當歸寂滅:我教化的因緣已經夠了,應該回歸寂滅的境界上去了!」即還本座,跏趺而逝:於是就回到他自己的座位上,結上跏趺坐,就往生了。


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二十七祖般若多羅 / Twenty-Seventh Patriarch - Prajnatara

白話解釋

尊者東印土人,因國王與不如密多祖,同車而出,尊者稽首於前:般若多羅尊者是西天第二十七祖。這位尊者是東印度的人,有一天東印度的國王和不如密多祖──也就是二十六祖,同坐著一輛車到外邊。這位般若多羅尊者,當時是個街里行乞的童子,就來到車前,向不如密多祖師打個問訊。 祖曰:汝憶往事否?不如密多祖師就問般若多羅尊者說:「你記不記得以前的事情啊?」 答曰:我念遠劫,與師同居,師演摩訶般若,我轉甚深修多羅。今日之事,蓋契昔因。般若多羅尊者就答覆不如密多祖師說:「我記得在很久遠很久遠的時候,我和法師您在一起住過。您在那時候,是研究演說《大般若經》;而我所念、所研究、所講解的,就是無上甚深的修多羅,我所研究的是大乘的經典。所以現在我們又碰到一起了,這大概和以前的因緣有關係。」 祖乃謂王曰:此子非他,即大勢至菩薩是也。不如密多祖師就對國王說:「這童子不是旁人,是西方三聖中的大勢至菩薩,所化成的童子。」 後南印土國王,一日請尊者。齋次,王問:諸人盡轉經,唯師為甚不轉?有一天,南印度的國王請般若多羅尊者到他那兒去吃齋。吃完齋之後,國王就問尊者:「現在所有的人都在這兒轉法、念經,何獨尊者不念經呢?」 尊者曰:般若多羅尊者就說了:「貧道出息不隨眾緣:我的呼吸向外出息的時候,不隨眾緣,不同流合污,不和光同塵。入息不居陰界:我吸回來的時候,不在色受想行識這五陰,也不在十八界。常轉如是經,百千萬億卷:我常常念這種的經,念百千萬億卷那麼多;非但一卷兩卷:我不是那麼著相地,拿起經典來念一卷、兩卷啦!我是時時刻刻都在念經。」 十八界,就是眼耳鼻舌身意、色聲香味觸法,這六根、六塵,再加上六識──眼識、耳識、鼻識、舌識、身識、意識,合起來叫「十八界」。 後轉付菩提達摩,兩手各放光明,化火自焚:般若多羅尊者以後把心印的妙法,轉傳給菩提達摩尊者了。然後兩隻手都放大光明,化出三昧真火,把自己燒了。


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