Meditation Masters
東土禪師


1st Chan Patriarch in China - Bodhidharma
二十八祖菩提達摩大師(東土初祖)
c. 440 – c. 528

Bodhidharma was a Buddhist monk who lived during the 5th or 6th century. He is traditionally credited as the transmitter of Chan Buddhism to China, and regarded as its first Chinese patriarch. According to Chinese legend, he also began the physical training of the monks of Shaolin Monastery that led to the creation of Shaolin kungfu.

Further Reading

菩提達摩,南天竺國香至王的三王子。少時神慧疏朗,聞皆曉悟,志存大乘,深入禪法。後隨二十七祖般若多羅學大乘義理,四十年後受囑衣缽,續佛法脈。梁武帝普通七年(公元526年)達摩祖師泛海來到廣州,後於嵩山少林寺面壁九年,時人稱「壁觀婆羅門」。畢生提倡「二入四行」之教法,於弘法時屢遭險難,先後五次遭毒害。約魏文帝大統二年,因化緣已畢,傳法得人,遂於第六次被毒害時從容滅度。因其將佛陀「明心見性」的禪法傳入中土,故為中國禪宗的初祖。

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2nd Chan Patriarch in China - Huike
二十九祖慧可大師(東土二祖)
c. 487 – c. 593

Huike is considered the Second Patriarch of Chinese Chán and the twenty-ninth since Gautama Buddha. One of the most important characteristics of the early Chán of Bodhidharma and Huike was the sudden approach to enlightenment rather than the Indian yogic meditation which advocated concentration and gradual self-perfection.

Further Reading

慧可大師,南北朝人,俗姓姬,武牢人,中國禪宗二祖。早年精於儒道,通老莊易學,後棄俗學,依寶靜禪師出家。為求無上大法,立雪斷臂,師事達摩。畢生力排誹議,雖屢遭險難,但仍堅持隨宜說法,廣渡群品。周武宗滅佛時,與同參曇林法師力挽狂瀾,護送經典佛像。後隱司空山,付法三祖僧璨。慧可得師精髓,承師遺志,弘揚達摩禪法。寂於隋文帝開皇十三年(公元593年),世壽107歲,諡「大祖禪師」,可謂中土禪宗第一人。

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3rd Chan Patriarch in China - Sengcan
三十祖僧璨大師(東土三祖)
c. ? – c. 606

Sengcan is known as the Third Chinese Patriarch of Chan after Bodhidharma and thirtieth Patriarch after Siddhartha Gautama Buddha. Sengcan is best known as the putative author of the famous Chan poem, Xinxin Ming 信心銘.

Further Reading

僧璨大師,中國禪宗三祖。初以白衣謁二祖,既受度傳法,隱於舒州之皖公山。後周武帝破滅佛法,三祖往來太湖縣司空山,居無常處,積十餘載,時人無能知者。至隋開皇十二年壬子歲,傳法四祖道信。後適羅浮山,悠遊二載,卻還舊址。逾月士民奔趨,大設檀供。三祖為四眾廣宣心要訖,於隋大業二年(公元606年)合掌立終,諡「鑒智禪師」。傳燈法本為《信心銘》。

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4th Chan Patriarch in China - Daoxin
三十一祖道信大師(東土四祖)
c. 580 – c. 651

Daoxin was the fourth Chán Buddhist Patriarch, following Jianzhi Sengcan. The teachings of Daoxin (and his successor, Hongren) are known as the East Mountain Teachings, a precursor to the flowering of Chan on a national scale some seventy-five years later at the beginning of the eighth century.

Further Reading

道信大師,隋朝蘄州人,俗姓司馬氏,中國禪宗四祖,世稱雙峰道信。幼慕空門而出家,開皇十二年(公元592年)入舒州皖公山,參謁僧璨,言下大悟,奉侍九年,得其衣缽。唐武德七年(公元624年),歸蘄州,住破頭山三十餘年,傳法於弘忍,另有弟子法融別立「牛頭禪」。永徽二年(公元651年),道信大師垂誡門人,安坐而逝,世壽七十二歲,建塔於東山黃梅寺。世人稱道信與弘忍的道法為東山法門,遙尊為東山法門之初祖。著有《菩薩戒法》、《入道安心要方便門》等書傳世。

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5th Chan Patriarch in China - Hongren
三十二祖弘忍大師(東土五祖)
c. 601 – c. 674

Hongren was the 5th Patriarch of Chan Buddhism. Hongren is said to have received Dharma transmission from Daoxin and passed on the symbolic bowl and robe of transmission to Huineng, the Sixth and last Chan Patriarch.

Further Reading

弘忍大師,俗姓周,湖北黃梅人,生於隋仁壽元年(公元601年)。 七歲時,從四祖道信出家。年十三歲,正式剃度為僧。他在道信門下,日間從事勞動,夜間靜坐習禪。道信常以禪宗頓漸宗旨考驗他,他觸事解悟,盡得道信的禪法。永徽三年(651)道信付法傳衣給他。同年九月道信圓寂,由他繼承法席,後世稱他為禪宗第五祖。因為四方來學的人日多,便在雙峰山的東面馮茂山另建道場,名東山寺。唐高宗咸亨五年(公元674年)二月,五祖示寂,世壽74歲。傳燈法本為《最上乘論》。

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6th Chan Patriarch in China - Huineng
三十三祖惠能大師(東土六祖)
c. 638 – c. 713

Huineng was the Sixth Patriarch of Chan Buddhism. According to tradition he was an uneducated layman who suddenly attained awakening upon hearing the Diamond Sutra. Despite his lack of formal training, he demonstrated his understanding to the fifth patriarch, Hongren, who then supposedly chose Huineng as his true successor instead of his publicly known selection of Yuquan Shenxiu. Huineng is regarded as the founder of the "Sudden Enlightenment" Southern Chan school of Buddhism, which focuses on an immediate and direct attainment of Buddhist enlightenment. The Platform Sutra of the Sixth Patriarch (六祖壇經), which is said to be a record of his teachings, is a highly influential text in the East Asian Buddhist tradition.

Further Reading

慧能大師,俗姓盧,祖籍范陽(今河北涿州)人,生於唐貞觀十二年(公元638年)。三歲喪父,與母親相依為命,砍柴為生。因聞客讀《金剛經》有所悟,前往黃梅禮五祖弘忍大師為師。初見五祖,五祖問他是哪裡人?來求什麼?慧能說是嶺南新州百姓,來求作佛。五祖說:「汝是嶺南人,又是獦僚,若為(如何)堪作佛!」他說:「人雖有南北,佛性本無南北。獦僚身與和尚不同,佛性有何差別?」五祖心驚而不便表示,後讓他去堆房春米八個多月。五祖選衣缽傳人時,慧能因呈偈「菩提本無樹,明鏡亦非台;本來無一物,何處惹塵埃?」而獨得五祖之心。後五祖秘傳衣缽與慧能。慧能離開五祖後,隱居獵人隊中17年,後於曹溪廣演頓悟禪,開創出禪宗一花開五葉的輝煌禪史。唐先天元年(公元712年)六祖示寂,世壽76歲。弟子法海記錄其教法成《六祖壇經》,流傳於世。

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First Patriarch - Bodhidharma

As I told you, the Great Master is counted as the Sixth Patriarch from the First Patriarch, Bodhidharma, who was the Twenty-eighth Indian Patriarch. “Bodhi” means enlightenment and “Dharma” means law. When Bodhidharma set sail from India, fulfilling Shakyamuni Buddha’s prediction that the Mahayana teaching would be transmitted to China during the time of the Twenty-eighth Patriarch, the Buddhadharma already existed in China, yet it was as if it were not there at all. Although there were men who studied, there were few who lectured or recited the sutras and repentance ceremonies were seldom practiced. Cultivation was superficial. Scholars debated and argued, but none of them truly understood.

The principles in the Sutras must be cultivated, but at that time in China they were not cultivated because everyone feared suffering. Now, in America, it is just the same. People sit in meditation. However, as soon as their legs begin to ache, they wince and fidget and then gently unbend them. People are just people and nobody likes to have aching legs.

While still in India, Patriarch Bodhidharma sent two of his disciples, Fo T’o and Yeh She, to China to transmit the sudden enlightenment Dharma door. But no one, not even Chinese Bhikshus, would speak to them. So they went to Lu Mountain where they met the Great Master Yüan Kung, who lectured on mindfulness of the Buddha.

Master Yüan asked, “What Dharma do you transmit that causes people to pay you so little respect?”

Fo T’o and Yeh She could not speak Chinese, so they used sign language instead. Raising their arms in the air, they said, “Watch! The hand makes a fist and the fist makes a hand. Is this not quick?”

Master Yüan replied, “Quick indeed.”

“Bodhi (enlightenment) and affliction,” they said, “are just that quick.”

At that moment, Dharma Master Yüan became enlightened, realizing that originally Bodhi and affliction are not different, for Bodhi is affliction and affliction is Bodhi. He made offerings to Fo T’o and Yeh She, and shortly thereafter, the two Indian Bhikshus died on the same day, in the same place. Their graves may still be seen at Lu Mountain.

Patriarch Bodhidharma saw that the roots of the Mahayana, the Great Vehicle Buddhadharma, were ripe in China. Fearing neither the distance nor the hardship of travel, he took the Dharma there. The Chinese called him “barbarian” because he talked in a way that no one understood. When children looked up at the bearded Bodhidharma, they ran away in terror. Adults feared that he was a kidnapper and so told their children to stay away from him.

Patriarch Bodhidharma went to Nan Ching where he listened to Dharma Master Shen Kuang explained the Sutras. When Shen Kuang spoke, the heavens rained fragrant blossoms and a golden-petalled lotus rose from the earth for him to sit upon. However, only those with good roots, who had opened the five eyes and the six spiritual penetrations were able to see that. Now! Isn’t this wonderful?

After listening to the Sutra, Bodhidharma asked, “Dharma Master, what are you doing?”

“I am explaining Sutras,” Shen Kuang replied.

“Why are you explaining Sutras?”

“I am teaching people to end birth and death.”

“Oh?” said Bodhidharma, “exactly how do you do that? In this Sutra which you explain, the words are black and the paper is white. How does this teach people to end birth and death?”

Dharma Master Shen Kuang had nothing to say. How did he teach people to end birth and death? He fumed in silence. Then, even though heavenly maidens rained down flowers and the earth gave forth golden lotuses, Dharma Master Shen Kuang got angry. This is what I mean when I say that the Buddhadharma existed in China, but it was as if it were not there at all.

When angry, Dharma Master Shen Kuang used his heavy iron beads to level opposition. In response to Bodhidharma’s question, he reddened with anger and raged like a tidal wave smashing a mountain. As he whipped out his beads, he snapped, “You are slandering the Dharma!” and cracked Bodhidharma across the mouth, knocking loose two teeth. Bodhidharma neither moved nor spoke. He hadn’t expected such a vicious reply.

There is a legend about the teeth of holy men. You must not ask about the principle, however, because it is too inconceivable. The legend says that if a sage’s teeth fall to the ground, it won’t rain for three years. Patriarch Bodhidharma thought, “If it doesn’t rain for three years, people will starve! I have come to China to save living beings, not to kill them!” So Bodhidharma did not let his teeth fall to the ground. Instead, he swallowed them and disappeared down the road. Although he had been beaten and reviled, Bodhidharma could not go to the government and file suit against Dharma Master Shen Kuang. Those who have left home have to be patient. How much more so must a patriarch forbear.

Bodhidharma then met a parrot imprisoned in a wicker cage. This bird was much more intelligent than Dharma Master Shen Kuang. Recognizing Bodhidharma as the First Patriarch, the bird said,

Mind from the West,
Mind from the West,
Teach me a way
To escape from this cage.

Although Bodhidharma had received no response from people, this parrot recognized him. Hearing the bird’s plea for help, Bodhidharma whispered a secret expedient teaching to teach this bird how to end suffering. He said,

To escape from the cage;
To escape from the cage;
Put out both legs,
Close both eyes.
This is the way
To escape from the cage!

The parrot listened attentively and said, “All right! I understand,” and stuck out his legs, closed his eyes, and waited.

When the bird’s owner came home from work, he always played with his parrot. But this time when he looked in the cage he was shocked. The owner was on the verge of tears. He couldn’t have been more upset if his own son had died. He pulled open the cage door and scooped up the bird, which lay still and quiet in his hand. The body had not yet chilled. The owner looked with disbelief at the little body. He peeked at it from the left and right...it didn’t even quiver. Slowly, he opened his hand...PHLLRTTPHLRTTPHLRTT! The bird broke loose from his hand and flew away!

Now, like the parrot, we are in a cage. How do we escape? You may say, “I am really free. If I want to eat, I eat; if I want to drink, I drink. I do not have to follow rules. I can do anything.”

Don’t think you are quite so clever. This is not freedom, it is just confusion. To be free, you must be free of birth and death, and then, if you wish to fly into space you can fly into space, and if you wish to drop into the earth, you can drop into the earth. If you can do this, you are truly independent. Like the parrot, you are free.

As I explain The Sixth Patriarch Dharma Jewel Platform Sutra, I do not lecture well. This is not polite talk; it’s true. Some lecture well, yet do not dare explain. After I have lectured, you of true eloquence may follow. When you have opened your wisdom, you will understand.

In his great anger, Dharma Master Shen Kuang knocked out two of Bodhidharma’s teeth. He thought he had won a great victory because the Barbarian put forth no opposition. But not long after, the Ghost of Impermanence, wearing a high hat, paid a call on Master Shen Kuang:

“Your life ends today,” said the ghost. “King Yama, the King of the Dead, has sent me to escort you.”

Master Shen Kuang said, “What? Must I die? When I speak the Dharma, flowers fall from the heavens and the earth bubbles forth golden lotuses, yet I still have not ended birth and death? Tell me, is there a person in this world who has ended birth and death?”

“There is,” came the reply.

“Who?” asked Shen Kuang. “Tell me, and I’ll follow him to study the Way.”

“He’s that black-faced Bhikshu whose teeth you just knocked out. King Yama bows to him every day.”

“Please, Old Ghost, speak to King Yama on my behalf. I want to follow that Bhikshu. I am determined to end birth and death. Can’t you allow me some more time?”

“All right,” said the ghost. “Since you are sincere, King Yama will wait.”

Dharma Master Shen Kuang was delighted. He was so quick to rush after Bodhidharma, that he forgot to thank the Ghost of Impermanence; in fact, he even forgot to put on his shoes. He ran until he met the parrot whom Bodhidharma had freed, and suddenly he understood, “Originally it is just this way! I need only act dead. I need only be a living dead person!”

Bodhidharma walked on, ignoring the barefoot Dharma Master following behind. Arriving at Bear’s Ear Mountain in Loyang, the Patriarch sat down to meditate facing a wall. Dharma Master Shen Kuang knelt close by. For nine years, Patriarch Bodhidharma sat meditating and Dharma Master Shen Kuang knelt beside him, seeking the Dharma.

Earlier, when I spoke this public record, an eleven year old child asked me, “During the nine years he knelt, did he eat or not?” I replied, “How could anyone kneel for nine years without eating and still live? When the Patriarch meditated, Shen Kuang knelt, and when the Patriarch ate, Shen Kuang ate.” But this is not recorded in the books. While the Patriarch was sitting, many people came to bow to him and were received as his disciples.

One day a great snow fell, and it rose in drifts as high as Shen Kuang’s waist, and yet he continued to kneel. Finally, Patriarch Bodhidharma asked him, “Why are you kneeling here in such deep snow?”

“I want to end birth and death,” replied Shen Kuang. “When I was lecturing Sutras I was unsuccessful. Please, Patriarch, transmit this dharma to me.”

“What do you see falling from the sky?” asked Bodhidharma.

“Snow,” said Shen Kuang.

“What color is it?” asked Bodhidharma.

“It’s white, of course.”

“When red snow falls from the sky,” said Bodhidharma, “I will transmit the Dharma to you. You knocked out two of my teeth, and I have been most compassionate in not taking revenge. Do you really expect me to give you the Dharma?” This was the test Patriarch Bodhidharma gave to Master Shen Kuang.

How did Shen Kuang complete the test? Cultivators of the Way carry a knife to protect the substance of their precepts. A true cultivator would rather cut off his head than break a precept.

Shen Kuang drew his precept knife, and with one slice, cut off his arm and thus passed his test. His blood flowed onto the new fallen snow. He scooped up a bucket full of crimson snow, dumped it before Bodhidharma, and said, “Patriarch, do you see? The snow is red!”

Bodhidharma said, “So it is, so it is.” He had tested Shen Kuang’s sincerity, and now the Patriarch was extremely happy. “My coming to China has not been in vain. I have met a person who dares to use a true mind to cultivate the Way, even forsaking his arm in search of the Dharma.”

The Patriarch then spoke the Dharma door of “using the mind to seal the mind.” It points straight to the mind to see the nature and realize Buddhahood.

While hearing this dharma, Shen Kuang didn’t think about the pain in his arm, and before that he had thought only of making the snow turn red. But now, he once again produced discursive thought: “My arm really hurts!” he said. “My mind is in pain. Please, Patriarch, quiet my mind.”

“Find your mind,” said Bodhidharma. “Show it to me and I will quiet it for you.”

Dharma Master Shen Kuang searched for his mind. He looked in the ten directions: north, east, south, west, in the intermediate points, and up and down. He also looked in the same seven places that the Venerable Ananda looked when Shakyamuni Buddha asked him the same question in The Shurangama Sutra. That is,

1. He looked inside his body;
2. He looked outside his body;
3. He looked for it hidden somewhere in his sense organs.
4. He looked where there was light;
5. He looked at the place where conditions came together.
6. He looked in the middle, between the organs and their objects;
7. And, finally, he looked in the place of non-attachment, which is no-place.

At last Shen Kuang said to Bodhidharma, “I can’t find my mind! Great Master, it is nowhere to be found.”

“This is how well I have quieted your mind,” said the Patriarch. At these words, Shen Kuang understood the meaning of the Dharma transmission, the wonderful, ineffable principle.

Ten thousand dharmas return to one;
Where does the one return?
Shen Kuang did not understand,
And ran after Bodhidharma;
Before him at Bear’s Ear Mountain
Knelt nine years

Seeking Dharma to escape King Yama

With the transmission of the Dharma, Shen Kuang received the name “Hui K’o” which means “Able Wisdom.”

Master Hui K’o asked Bodhidharma, “In India, did you transmit the Dharma to your disciples? Did you also give the robe and bowl as certification?”

“I transmitted the Dharma in India,” replied Bodhidharma, “but I did not use the robe and bowl. Indian people are straightforward. When they attain the fruit, they know they must be certified. If no one certifies them, they do not say, ‘I have attained the way! I have given proof to Arhatship! I am a Bodhisattva!’ They do not speak like this.”

“Chinese people, however, are different. Many Chinese have the Great Vehicle Root Nature, but there are also many people who lie. Having cultivated without success, such people claim to have the Way. Though they have not certified to the fruit, they claim to be certified sages. Therefore I transmit the robe and bowl to prove that you have received the transmission. Guard them well and take care.”

While the Patriarch Bodhidharma was in China, he was poisoned six times. Dharma Master Bodhiruci and Vinaya Master Kuang T’ung were jealous of him. They prepared a vegetarian meal which contained an invariably fatal drug, and offered it to the Patriarch. Although he knew it was poisoned, he ate it. Then he vomited the food on to a tray, and it was transformed into a pile of writhing snakes.

After this unsuccessful attempt, Bodhiruci tried again, using an even more potent poison. Again, Bodhidharma ate the food. Then he sat atop a huge boulder and spat out the poison. The boulder crumbled into a heap of dust. In four more attempts, jealous people tried without success to poison the Patriarch.

One day, the Great Master Bodhidharma said to Hui K’o, “I came to China because I saw people here with the Great Vehicle Root Nature. Now I have transmitted the Dharma and am ready to complete the stillness.” After his death, the Patriarch’s body was buried. There was nothing unusual about his funeral.

In Northern Wei (386-532 A.D.), however, an official called Sung Yün, met Bodhidharma on the road to Chung Nan Mountain in Ts’ung Ling. When they met, Bodhidharma was carrying one shoe in his hand. He said to Sung Yün, “The king of your country died today. Return quickly! There is work to be done.”

The official asked, “Great Master, where are you going?”

“Back to India,” the Great Master replied.

“Venerable One, to whom did you transmit your Dharma?”

“In China, after forty years, it will be ‘K’o.’”

Sung Yün returned to his country and reported the incident. “Recently, in Ts’ung Ling, I met the Patriarch Bodhidharma who told me that the king of our country had died and instructed me to return to the capital. When I arrived I found it exactly as he had said. How did he know?”

His countrymen scoffed, “Bodhidharma is already dead. How could you have met him on the road?” Then they rushed to the Patriarch’s grave and found it empty, with nothing inside but one shoe.

Where did Bodhidharma go? No one knows. Perhaps he came to America. Wherever he wanders, no one can recognize him, because he can change and transform according to his convenience. When he came to China, he said he was one hundred and fifty years old, and when he left, he was still one hundred and fifty years old. No historical references can be found.

When Bodhidharma was about to enter Nirvana he said, “I came to China and transmitted my Dharma to three people. One received my marrow, one my bones, and one my flesh.” After the transmission, the Patriarch himself no longer had a body. Great Master Hui K’o received the marrow and Ch’an Master Tao Yü received the bones.

Bhikshuni Tsung Ch’ih could recite The Lotus Sutra from memory. After she died, a green lotus flower grew from her mouth. She received Bodhidharma’s flesh. In the end, the Patriarch had no body at all. So don’t look for him in America; you won’t find him.

回到祖師介紹

東土初祖 - 菩提達摩


那麼這個「六祖」,是從什麼地方論來的呢?這要從菩提達摩那兒講起;菩提是覺,達摩是法,從覺法大師這地方來論。菩提達摩在印度是第二十八代祖師;他為什麼不在那兒做祖師,跑到中國來呢?因為以前佛授過記,預先說過:到第二十八代的時候,大乘佛法應該傳到震旦;震旦就是中國,所以菩提達摩從印度坐船到中國。

當時中國的佛法,似有似無;好像有佛法,又好像沒有佛法。為什麼這樣講呢?因為當時的佛法,只是在那兒做表面工作,如誦經、研究經典、講經等,甚至連拜懺都沒有。一般學者,就拿佛法當學問來研究;當學問,就是只在那兒互相討論研究。所以神光法師,就是二祖慧可,當時就講經說法,講得很有感應,講得天花亂墜。天花亂墜,並不是人人都看得見;當時因為也有善根的人,得到天眼;五眼六通裏的五眼是得到了,六通還談不到。就看見慧可大師一講經,天上就有天女散花,地湧金蓮。從地裏湧出金蓮,神光法師就坐在金蓮花上講經。你看,真是很神氣!這就是研究經典。

但是經典所說的道路,是應該修行啊!可是沒有什麼人修行。為什麼沒有人修行呢?就因為都怕苦,沒有什麼人真正打坐。當時,有一個誌公祖師是參禪打坐的,他也是得五眼的。一般人都怕苦,不修行,沒有認真去參禪打坐。也就像現在你們一樣,坐在那兒,等一等腿痛了,就想把腿伸開,這麼搖搖晃晃地把它摩擦一下。因為人都是人嘛!都怕吃苦頭,當時就有這個情形,和現在差不多。這叫似有佛法,而沒有佛法。

達摩祖師一看,中國的大乘根性成熟了,應該把大乘的佛教帶到中國;於是乎,也不怕路程遙遠,和旅行的辛苦,來到中國。你猜,到了中國怎麼樣呢?中國當時的人看不起外國人,說,這是摩羅剎來了。摩羅剎和尚,講話也不懂,語言也不通;所以小孩子一看見達摩祖師,就跑了。為什麼呢?看他那麼長的鬍子,就很害怕。大人呢?一看小孩子跑了,就以為這個印度人,是不是來抓小孩子來的?所以就叫小孩子更不要接近他。你看,不要說是度大人,他連小孩子都度不到,都沒有人敢接近他。

於是乎到廣州,再從廣州到南京,聽神光法師在那兒講經。達摩祖師一看,這個法師在這兒講經,他就聽。聽完,他就問法、請法,說:「法師,你在這兒做什麼?」神光法師說:「我講經呀!」

達摩祖師說:「你講經做什麼?」

神光法師說:「我講經教人了生死!」

達摩祖師說:「噢!你教人了生死,生死怎麼樣了法呢?你所講的經,黑的是字,白的是紙,你用什麼教人了生死?」

神光法師一聽,問得他沒話講,心想:「自己用什麼教人了生死呢?」就惱羞成怒,發了脾氣。

哦!你看,他講得天花亂墜,地湧金蓮,也一樣發脾氣。所以我說似有似無嘛!發了脾氣怎麼樣呀?他就拿起武器,是什麼武器?就是一串念珠。他的念珠,不是我這個星月菩提,我的不太重,很輕。他的念珠,是用鋼鐵造的。用鋼鐵造念珠做什麼呢?就是預備同人打的時候,用來做武器。這法師若發了脾氣,那不得了啊!簡直像鬧洪水、山崩地裂似的。他這時候一發脾氣,說:「你現在來謗法!」拿起念珠,照著達摩面上就打。

雖然達摩祖師大約會武術,但因為未加防避,想不到他這麼厲害,說不過就要動粗,所以達摩祖師的牙給打掉兩顆。

因為達摩祖師是聖人,據一般的傳說,聖人的牙被人打掉,若是吐在地上,就要三年不下雨。是不是這樣子?你不要問我,我是這麼樣講。我們先講明白,不要說為什麼。什麼理由呀?沒有理由!講就是講,沒有理由的,你不要問!

達摩祖師一想:「若三年不下雨,要餓死多少人啊?我來度眾生、救眾生,這不是殺眾生了嗎?」於是乎,把這兩顆牙像吃油餅似的,吃到肚裏去;油餅沒有那麼硬,他就像吃骨頭似的,吃到肚裏去,於是乎就走了。外來的人被人欺負,也就算了,打掉牙,也不能到政府那兒去告神光。出家人要忍辱嘛!況且他是祖師,更應該忍辱。

走到半路上,遇到一隻鸚鵡,關在籠子裏;可是這隻鳥,比神光法師聰明得多,牠認識菩提達摩是一位祖師,就說:「西來意,西來意,請你教我出籠計。」你看,達摩祖師在人裏頭沒有知音,遇到這小鳥,卻是一個知音。什麼叫知音?就是認識他。

達摩祖師一聽,小鳥這樣請教他,也就很高興,就教牠一個方便法;這不是實法,是權法。他說:「出籠計,出籠計,兩腿伸直兩眼閉,這便是你出籠計。」這好像祕密的妙訣,是祕密法,所以他說話沒有那麼大聲,我現在講的,恐怕比達摩祖師說的聲音要大;他一定告訴小鳥說:「出籠計,這便是你出籠計。」他一定是這樣講的,為什麼呢?他若講得大聲,旁人聽見,這個方法也行不通。所以你看這個地方,這位祖師用心良苦呀!

方法教會了,小鳥說:「好了,這可以,我現在明白怎麼樣是出籠計了!」於是乎,小鳥看見主人遠遠地來,就把這個方便法用出來,腿也伸直,眼睛也閉上,就等著主人來親近牠。

這主人天天回來都要看一看、玩一玩牠,這是他最心愛的一隻小鳥,可以和他談話,又可以給他消愁、解悶,所以回來先要看看這隻鳥。他回來一看,哇!甚至就要哭起來!怎麼呢?這小鳥在籠子裏,躺著不動彈了。啊!比兒子死了都焦急;他兒子若死了,他恐怕都沒有看得那麼重要。於是乎,他打開籠子門,把小鳥拿出來放在手上,這還是熱呼呼的沒有涼;因為小鳥是裝死,所以身上的暖氣,不會沒有的。這主人把小鳥放在手裏轉著看,嗯!不動了!翻過來看,掉過來看,看來看去,把手打開看看。噢!把手一打開,你說小鳥怎麼樣?呼!飛了!飛了。這隻小鳥的出籠計靈了。

可是我們現在都在籠子裏,我們的出籠計怎麼辦?我們人哪,你不要以為自己是自由的;不要誤解自由,說:「我願意吃就吃,我願意喝酒就喝酒,願意做什麼就做什麼,我不守規矩也可以,這就是自由!」那簡直地太混帳了!那叫誤解自由。真正自由,要能生死自由,願意飛到天空,就飛到天空,願意鑽到地裏,就鑽到地裏;你要有這個本事,才是自由,好像那隻小鳥似的。

現在講《六祖壇經》,本來我講得不好,不是客氣,是真的。但是雖然我講得不好,可是敢講;也有講得好的,可是他不敢講。等我這個講得不好的,先講一次,以後講得好的,就可以跟著來講。將來你們有很多時間、很多機會,可以聽《六祖壇經》;可是講得好的,是從講不好的這兒生出來的,要明白這一點。我現在講得雖然不好,將來你們開智慧,比我講得就更好;因為我現在沒有開智慧,和你們是一樣的。但是你們可都要用筆記一記,等你們開智慧,就知道我講得是對不對。現在我相信你們還不能知道我講得是好?是不好?等開智慧了,噢!原來他這地方講錯!是不是呀?那時候就明白了,可是那要等二十年之後。

神光法師把印度來的這個和尚,打掉兩顆牙,印度和尚也沒有反攻他;以為這回是得到好處,勝利了,可是無常鬼卻來了。這無常鬼戴著一頂高帽子,到這裏來說:「法師,你今天壽命應該盡了,閻羅王派我來請你去,你今天就應該死。」

神光法師一聽,「噢!怎麼我還要死嗎?我也要死嗎?我講經講得天花亂墜,地湧金蓮,講得這樣好,還不能了生死嗎?這個世界上,到底有沒有人了生死呢?」就問無常鬼。

無常鬼說:「有。世界上有了生死的。」

神光法師說:「是哪一個?你可以告訴我,我跟他學一學了生死的法。」

無常鬼說:「哪一個呀?就是你剛才打掉兩顆牙的黑臉和尚。他呀!閻羅王就管不了他;不單管不了他,閻羅王天天都要拜他,都要向他叩頭頂禮,來恭敬他。」

神光法師說:「噢!他就是了生死的和尚呀?我要跟他去學了生死的法門。你這無常鬼,鬼大哥,等一等再叫我去,可以不可以呀?我現在真是想要了生死的,所以你同閻羅王講一講,給我一點時間,讓我去學這個法門。」

無常鬼說:「你真有誠意,這也未嘗不可,也都可以通融通融。」

神光法師一聽,無常鬼答應他了,高興得不得了,連鞋也忘了穿,打了赤足,就後面追達摩去。

達摩在前面走,他就在後面追;一追,追到這兒,看見這隻小鳥,達摩祖師幫助牠得到自由。他就想:噢!原來就是這麼回事,要裝死,要裝一個活死人。達摩也不理他,就前頭走;他後頭跟著,一跟就跟到洛陽的熊耳山,達摩祖師就在那兒面壁打坐。達摩在那兒坐禪,神光就在那兒跪著;達摩祖師在那兒面壁坐了九年,神光法師就在那兒跪了九年。

以前我講這個公案的時候,有一個小孩子聽我講,聽得很高興,就問我說:「那麼他跪了九年,有沒有吃飯呢?」這小孩子就想起問有沒有吃飯,當時我回答他,在這九年如果不吃飯,怎麼可以活著呢?就是達摩祖師吃飯的時候,他也吃飯;達摩祖師打坐的時候,他也打坐。可是在書上沒有記載這個事情,我也沒有講明。這個小孩子來問這個問題,可見他一天到晚,就是想著吃飯,所以他怕神光法師在那兒跪著,沒有飯吃。其實這小孩子,並不是掛著吃飯;講起來他是非常有善根的。他從五歲就開始給父親、母親天天叩頭,等到十一歲的時候遇著我。他問我的那時候是十一歲,並不是五歲,我要說的是:他五歲的時候,就能孝順父母。

有一天下大雪,達摩祖師在打坐,神光法師就跪著,雪下得把神光法師的腰,都給埋了,他還是跪著求法。達摩祖師回頭看,說:「你幹什麼這樣?下這麼大雪,你還在這兒跪著幹什麼?」

神光法師說:「我要了生死!以前我講經,不能了生死;現在我要了生死,請祖師傳給我了生死的法門!」

達摩祖師說:「你看天,下的是什麼?」

神光法師說:「下的是雪。」

「雪是什麼色的啊?」

神光法師說:「當然是白色的!」

達摩祖師就出一個題目,來考他一下,說:「你等著天什麼時候下紅雪,我就傳法給你;如果不下紅雪,你就不要希望。你這麼惡的一個和尚,一念珠就把我牙打掉兩顆,我不向你報仇,已經算是最慈悲了,怎麼又會傳給你法呢!」

這題目出了,可是神光法師就把文章給作成了!文章怎麼樣作的呢?他一看,牆上有一把刀,這是修道人預備有要犯戒的時候用的戒刀;逼不得已,一定要犯戒了,寧可把自己的頭割下,也不犯戒,保持清淨戒體。神光法師把刀拿下,一刀就斬斷一條臂。這是照考試的題目,他來作這個文章。

斬斷臂,就有血流出來,他把血和到雪裏面;雪雖然是白色的,經過血一染,就變成紅色的。於是乎,神光法師或者拿一個東西,中國人有畚箕,掃地裝塵土的那種東西;就把雪撮了一畚箕。紅雪、白雪這麼一攪和,都變成紅雪,就說:「祖師你看,現在是紅雪了!」

達摩祖師一看,「真的嗎?啊!這真是紅雪了!」這本來早就在意料之中,就是要考驗他的真心。一看見這個,達摩祖師就很高興:「噢!我到中國,還真是沒有白來這一趟,還遇著你這麼一個真心求法修道的人,把自己的臂膀都不要了。這是真有一點誠心!」於是乎,就傳他以心印心的法門,教他直指人心、見性成佛。

神光法師聽了說法後,這時候臂痛了;以前他沒有想到臂,就只是想方法教雪變成紅色,也忘了臂痛。達摩祖師講完法後,他這時生了分別心:「啊,我剁下來的胳臂好痛!」他對達摩祖師說:「啊!我現在心很痛,請祖師替我安心。」

達摩祖師就說:「把你的心拿來給我,我才可以幫你把心安好,就不會痛了。」

神光法師就找自己的心,心在什麼地方?東西南北,四維上下,所有的地方都找遍,覓心了不可得!對達摩祖師說:「我找不著心,沒有。」

達摩祖師說:「我與汝安心竟!」我已經安好你這個心了。

在這個地方,要講起來,法是無量無邊的;達摩祖師對神光法師所說的法,也是妙不可言的,所以才說:

萬法歸一一歸合
神光不明趕達摩
熊耳山前跪九載
只求一點躲閻羅

「萬法歸一一歸合」,萬法歸於一,一又歸到什麼地方呢?合就是人一口。「神光不明趕達摩」,神光不懂「合」字的意思,所以就去追趕達摩祖師。「熊耳山前跪九載」,在熊耳山跪了九年。「只求一點躲閻羅」,只求達摩祖師指點他這一點點,來了生脫死,躲過閻羅王。這是神光法師遇到達摩祖師的經過。

達摩祖師到中國,曾經被人下了六次毒藥,誰來毒他呢?當時北魏有一個法師叫菩提流支,又叫光統律師,他最妒忌達摩祖師,所以就做一些齋菜,來供養達摩祖師;但是菜飯裏,下了最毒的毒藥,無論任何人吃了,都會死的,就這麼來供養達摩祖師。達摩祖師知道不知道飯裏有毒呢?知道!可是他還是「照吃可也」,就把毒飯吃了。吃了之後,叫人拿來一個盤子,他就吐;吐出來變成什麼呢?毒藥完全都變成蛇,這是一次。

菩提流支看毒不死達摩,也不知道是怎麼回事,第二次又來下毒藥,下加倍的量;以前沒有毒死你,這回下多一點毒藥。就用另一種更毒的毒藥,來毒達摩;達摩又把它吃了,吃了之後,怎麼樣呢?坐到一塊大石頭上,把毒藥屙出去;屙出毒藥的力量,把石頭都毒爆了,一塊大磐石也破壞了!這是第二次。

達摩祖師傳法給神光法師後,就給他改名字叫慧可,說他的智慧真可以了,夠了。慧可大師就問達摩祖師說:「你在印度有沒有傳法的徒弟呢?是不是也要給袈裟,用衣缽袈裟,來做憑據呢?」

達摩祖師說:「沒有。在印度,我傳法是傳法,但是不用衣缽袈裟來表信。因為印度的人,心都很直率的,他修道,得道就說得道。有人證明他是開悟得道,這就是得道了;如果沒有人證明,他自己不會說,我得了道,我證了果,我是阿羅漢,我又是菩薩。不會這麼講的,所以那裏的人,都很正直。中國的人不同,中國大乘根性的眾生是多,可是打妄語的人也多。修道沒有成道業,他說他成道了;沒有證果,他說他證果了。所以要用衣缽袈裟來表明證據。現在傳給你衣缽袈裟,你好好保持著。」

神光法師,就是這慧可大師,聽達摩祖師這樣囑咐,也就明白傳法的意義了。

達摩祖師於是乎就死了,人把他用棺材裝起來,埋到墳裏,以為沒有事了。可是就在同時,魏朝有一個使臣叫宋雲,在葱嶺附近,就是中國終南山那一帶,在路上碰見達摩祖師。達摩祖師拿著一隻鞋,對宋雲講:「你的國王今天死了,你趕快回去,你的國家有事。」

宋雲就問說:「大師,您到什麼地方去?」

他說:「我回印度去。」

「大師,您的法傳給誰了?」

達摩祖師說:「在中國四十年以後,可是也。」可,就是說的慧可。

宋雲回到他的國家北魏,就說這件事:「我那天走到葱嶺,遇見菩提達摩了。他說他回印度去。他告訴我,就是我遇到他那一天,我們的國王死了。我現在回來,果然正是那一天,他怎麼會知道呢?」

這些人說:「達摩早就死了,你怎麼會碰見他呢?」大家都不相信宋雲講的話。「我們把他的墳打開看看。」於是乎,把達摩祖師的墳墓就打開;打開一看,棺材裏什麼也沒有,就剩一隻鞋。

究竟達摩祖師到什麼地方去了呢?以後就沒有人知道,恐怕現在來到美國,也不一定。不過沒有人認識他,他可以改頭換面,隨便千變萬化的。他到中國,就說他一百五十歲,走了還是一百五十歲;到什麼地方去?沒有人知道。說是去考查歷史,歷史上也沒有這些問題,沒有地方考據去。這是達摩祖師一生到中國大概的意思。

在達摩祖師沒有來之前,他派過兩個徒弟到中國,殊不知到中國受了很大的氣,被人欺負。他這兩個徒弟的名字叫什麼呢?一個叫佛馱,一個叫耶舍。兩個徒弟到中國,就傳頓教法門,就是禪宗的道理。到什麼地方講,人家都不睬他,沒有人和他講話的,所有的和尚,都默擯他。默擯就是不和他講話,你自己講什麼,也沒有人聽;所以自己也沒有意思,就要走了。

一走走到廬山,廬山有個慧遠法師,他是講念佛的,專門念佛。去見遠公大師,慧遠大師就說:「你們兩位是印度的和尚,你們傳的是什麼法啊?怎麼這些人不理你們呢?」

佛馱、耶舍把手伸出來。因為大約講話也講不太通,只會很少的中國話;所以就把手伸出來,說:「手做拳,拳做手,快不快?」

遠公大師說:「很快的!」

他說:「菩提、煩惱,也就是這麼快!」

遠公大師當時就開悟:「哦!菩提、煩惱,原來沒有分別啊!沒有什麼兩樣!菩提就是煩惱,煩惱即菩提!」遠公大師這樣明白了,就很恭敬地供養他們兩位。沒有好久,他們在同一天就都死了,他們的墳,現在還在廬山那兒。

達摩祖師在印度,一聽說兩個徒弟被人欺負得這麼樣子,以後兩個徒弟也都死了。就想:「我去看一看。」於是乎,就到中國來。到中國來,收了很多中國徒弟。當時他在熊耳山面壁九年,不知多少人去皈依、禮拜,拜他做師父。其中有三個人,達摩祖師臨圓寂的時候說:「我到中國來,我的法傳了三個人。一個得到我的髓,一個得到我的骨頭,一個得到我的肉。」所以他自己也沒有身體,自己把身體都分給人了。

誰得到他的髓了呢?就是慧可,得到達摩祖師的髓。道育禪師,得到達摩祖師的骨。道濟比丘尼,就是總持比丘尼,得到達摩祖師的肉。我講《法華經》的時候,不是說有一個比丘尼死了之後,在她口裏生出一朵青蓮花來?就是這個比丘尼。她把達摩祖師的肉,都給吃了;道育禪師,把達摩祖師的骨頭,都給啃了;慧可祖師,把達摩祖師的髓,都給喝了,所以達摩祖師連身體都沒有了。各位不要在美國找,找不著了!

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2nd Patriarch - Huike

The Second Patriarch, Hui K’o of the Northern Ch’i (550- 577 A.D.) whose family name was Chi, was formerly Shen Kuang. When he was born, his parents saw Wei T’ou Bodhisattva, the golden armored spiritual being, come to offer protection; thereupon they named their son “Shen Kuang” which means “spiritual light.” Not only was the Patriarch intelligent, but he had an excellent memory as well, and his skill and powers of discrimination were so remarkable that he could read ten lines in the time it took an ordinary person to read one. In a gathering of one hundred people, al1 talking at once, he could clearly distinguish each conversation.

The Great Master, however, had great anger; he disagreed with everyone and was always ready to fight. When Shen Kuang explained Sutras, as I have told you, he used his iron beads to win his arguments. Later, after he knelt for nine years in quest of the Dharma, it was his great anger which enabled him to cut off his arm and feel no pain. It was also because of this anger that he later felt pain. Unafflicted by anger, he would have felt no pain. Pain is just an affliction and affliction is the cause of pain.

The Second Patriarch was forty years old when he left Bodhidharma. Having obtained the Dharma, he went into hiding because Bodhiruci and Vinaya Master Kuang T’ung, who had made six attempts on the life of Bodhidharma, also wished to kill his disciples. So although Hui K’o had great anger, he nevertheless obeyed his teacher and went into hiding for forty years. When he was eighty, he began to propagate the Buddhadharma, teaching and transforming living beings.

Later, the disciples of Bodhiruci and Vinaya Master Kuang T’ung tried to kill Master Hui K’o, who feigned insanity to lessen the jealousy of his rivals. But he never ceased to save living beings who were ready to receive his teaching. Because so many people continued to trust the Second Patriarch, Bodhiruci’s disciples were still jealous. They reported Hui K’o to the government, accusing him of being a weird inhuman creature. “He confuses the people who follow him,” they charged; “he is not even human.” The Emperor ordered the district magistrate to arrest him, and Hui K’o was locked up and questioned:

“Are you human or are you a freak?” asked the Magistrate.

“I’m a freak,” replied Master Hui K’o.

The magistrate knew that the Patriarch said this to avoid causing jealousy, so he ordered him to tell the truth. “Speak clearly,” he demanded, “what are you?”

The Great Master replied, “I’m a freak.”

Governments can’t allow strange freaks to roam the earth, and so Hui K’o was sentenced to die. Now, isn’t this the way of the world?

The Patriarch wept when he told his disciples, “I must undergo this retribution.” He was a courageous man, certainly not one to cry out of fear of death. He was sad because the Dharma had not become widely understood during his lifetime. “The Buddhadharma will not flourish until the time of the Fourth Patriarch,” he announced, and then he faced the executioner.

“Come and kill me!” he said. The executioner raised his axe and swung it towards the Master’s neck. What do you think happened?

You are probably thinking, “He was a Patriarch with great spiritual power. Certainly the blade shattered and his head was not even scratched.” No. The axe cut off his head, and it didn’t grow back. However, instead of blood, a milky white liquid flowed onto the chopping block.

You think, “Now really, this is just too far out.” If you believe it, that is fine. If you do not believe it, that is fine too; just forget it. However, I will give you a simple explanation of why blood did not flow from the Patriarch’s neck: When a sage enters the white yang realm his blood becomes white because his body has transformed completely into yang, leaving no trace of yin. “I don’t believe it,” you say. Of course you don’t. If you did, you would be just like the Second Patriarch.

When the executioner saw that the Master did not bleed, he exclaimed, “Hey! He really is a freak! I chopped off his head, but what came out was not blood, but this milky white fluid. And his face looks exactly as it did when he was alive!” The Emperor knew that he had executed a saint, because he remembered that the Twenty-fourth Indian Patriarch, Aryasimha, had also been beheaded and had not bled, but a white milky liquid had poured forth, because he had been without outflows. When one has no ignorance, one may attain to a state without outflows and enter the white yang realm.

You think, “But you just said that Patriarch Hui K’o had great anger. How could he have been without ignorance?” You are certainly more clever than I am, for I did not think of this question. But now that you have brought it up, I will answer it. His was not petty anger like yours and mine which explodes like firecrackers, “Pop! Pop! Pop.” His anger was wisdom and because of it his body became yang. Great patience, great knowledge, great courage, and great wisdom: that’s what his temper was made of.

Realizing that Hui K’o was a Bodhisattva in the flesh, the Emperor felt great shame. “A Bodhisattva came to our country,” he said, “and instead of offering him protection, we killed him.” Then the Emperor had all the great officials take refuge with this strange Bhikshu. Thus, even though the Second Patriarch had already been executed, he still accepted these disciples.

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東土二祖 - 慧可


接下來,我們講二祖神光,也就是慧可法師;他是被人把頭給割去的。慧可法師死的時候,是被政府殺的。殺了可殺了,但是他不流血;流的是像牛奶似的,他的血,都變白色的。因為這樣子,就很多人信佛;當時皇帝也改過,知道是錯了,知道他是真菩薩。

慧可大師,在家姓姬,出生在北齊的時候。達摩祖師是在梁武帝的時候,到第二祖時,北齊的時代已經換了。慧可大師以前的名字,叫神光,為什麼叫神光呢?因為他降生的時候,他的父母看見一個金甲的神人,放大光明。金甲的神人,大概就是護法韋陀菩薩,來保護這一位祖師出世。

這一位祖師,生來非常聰明,記憶力非常強,所謂「目下十行字,耳聽百人音。」怎麼叫目下十行字呢?並不是說他這一看,就看十行,而是你普通的人看這一行,看這一趟字的時間,他可以看十趟,就這麼快,非常迅速;耳聽百人音,一百個人,同時講話,他都可以聽得清楚,他的分別力就這麼樣。因為有金甲的神人放光,所以名字就叫神光。

可是這一位祖師,脾氣最大,講話不投機,就想打。在四十歲以前,連講經說法,都帶著鐵念珠,行俠仗義,有不平的事情,他就要平一平。因為這個,所以見到達摩祖師,他就用念珠打菩提達摩;結果跪了九年,自己把臂斬斷了一隻。你想想,要是沒有脾氣,怎麼能捨得把自己的臂,一刀就斬斷。這就是有脾氣,有火氣,所以把自己的臂斬斷。斬斷了,不覺得痛,得法之後,才覺得痛,為什麼他覺得痛了?因為他有脾氣;如果沒有脾氣的話,就算斬掉了,也不會痛的。痛就是有煩惱,所以會痛。

這一位祖師,在四十歲遇到菩提達摩祖師,得法後,隱遁了四十年。為什麼要隱遁呢?因為當時有一位菩提流支,也就是光統律師,這一黨專門和達摩祖師的弟子作對,甚至見到就想要殺。你看!連菩提達摩祖師,都被他們用毒藥來毒,何況他的徒弟呢!慧可大師雖然很大的脾氣,但是聽他師父菩提達摩的指教:「你應該隱遁,躲避這些人來和你作難。」所以他就隱遁了四十年。

前面不是講,宋雲問達摩祖師傳法給誰?達摩祖師說:「四十年後,可是也。」四十年後,有位慧可大師,就是我的傳法人。等到四十年之後,慧可大師弘揚佛法,教化眾生,遇到三祖僧璨大師,把法就傳給僧璨大師。他吩咐僧璨大師說:「你好好保護衣缽,這是作證據的。你也應該隱遁,不然的話,也會對你不利。」因為那時菩提流支──光統律師的徒黨,他的徒弟和他這一黨,又來尋仇,就想要殺慧可大師。

慧可大師,在這時候,就假裝瘋狂,就是crazy,發顛、發神經病。在發神經病期間,有緣的人,他就度。他雖然是有神經病,但是和眾生有緣,所以很多人相信慧可大師。可是菩提流支的徒弟,這一班黨徒,還是放不下,還是妒忌障礙;於是乎,就到政府那裏把慧可大師告了。拿什麼理由告呢?說:「他不是人,是什麼呢?是妖怪!所以迷得這麼多人,來崇拜他,根本他就不是人。」就這樣到政府裏去告,政府把情形奏給皇帝。

當時皇帝下了一道聖旨,就是詔書,命令當地的有司──當地的官,去把慧可大師捉來審問,說:「你到底是人?是妖怪?」

你猜慧可大師怎麼說?他說:「我是妖怪。」

可是,這個有司一聽到他這樣講,知道他是冤枉,是受人妒忌,就叫他自己想清楚,說:「你想清楚了!你到底是什麼?」

慧可大師說:「我實實在在是個妖怪,我真正是個妖怪。」

既然真是妖怪,國法不能允許妖怪在世界上,於是乎奏明皇帝,就要把他斬首示眾。唉!你說世界有沒有真理啊!一個第二代祖師,政府就說他是妖怪,是個妖精。

在這個時候,二祖慧可大師,對著他這一班徒眾說:「我啊,是應該受這個果報的。我傳的佛法,到第四代的時候,只落到名相上。」化成名相,就是有名有相,著到相上。說完這話,二祖慧可大師就落淚。落淚並不是怕死,並不是說政府要殺他,他怕死,哭起來了。因為二祖脾氣最大,就是死,或什麼的,他也不怕;他若怕死,他也不會承認他是妖怪。二祖最神氣,你看!死就死了嘛!怕什麼!你說我是妖怪,我就是妖怪!沒關係!你看這個脾氣!若不是有脾氣,怎麼會這樣?這就是一股勁兒。哭了之後,就叫劊子手說:「你來殺吧!」

劊子手拿著刀,照他頭上砍了一刀。你猜怎麼樣哪?你猜不著呢!你一定想:「哦,這一定像砍到鐵上、石頭上,頭砍不掉的,因為他是祖師,有神通嘛!」你會這樣想。

不是的。這一刀,就把頭砍掉,再也不會長出來了。砍掉頭怎麼樣呢?沒有血出,所出的是什麼呢?就像牛奶似的白漿。

說:「這個未免太神化了!」就是這麼神化。你信就信,你不信就算了,沒有什麼理由可講的!你信,我可以給你用簡單的道理講一講。為什麼他冒白漿,不流血呢?這是人變成純陽體了,他所有的血,都變成白色。你說我不信,當然你不信啦!你若信,你也成了第二代祖師了!

有司一看這種情形,妖怪不流血,這真是妖怪了!於是乎,就具實以奏,說:「真是妖怪。我把他殺了,他頭掉了,沒有血流出來,只流出好像牛奶那種白色的漿,並且他的面目,死了還和活著一樣。這證明真是妖怪!」

但是到皇帝那兒,皇帝知道。皇帝怎麼知道呢?因為在印度,第二十四祖師子比丘也是被人殺了;砍掉了頭,不流血,冒白漿。這是證明這個人的體,純陽無陰,陰都變成陽了,這叫白陽世界。

白陽世界是為什麼呢?因為他無漏。什麼無漏?因為他自己沒有無明了。那麼說:「你方才講慧可大師,脾氣很大的,那麼有脾氣,怎麼會沒有無明呢?」你比我聰明,我還沒想到這個問題,你想到了,令我也多了一點知識。你要明白,我說慧可大師的脾氣,是大仁、大勇、大智、大慧的脾氣,並不是像你我,好像炮仗似的脾氣,啪似地響了!你要聽明白,他這個脾氣,和一般脾氣不同。他的脾氣,就是智慧;有智慧,他就能認出因果循環,一切的道理,都不違背。

那麼這樣子,皇帝知道這是真正的肉身菩薩,所以就生大懺悔,說:「哦!這真菩薩,在我們國家裏,我們都不能保護,現在居然把他殺了。」於是乎,他大生慚愧,令文武大臣全都皈依這位妖怪。所以他雖然死了,又收了一些徒弟。二祖神光的大略事蹟是這樣。

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Third Patriarch - Sengcan

The Third Patriarch, Seng Ts’an of the Sui Dynasty, was of unknown family name and origin. When he first came to visit the Second Patriarch, his body was covered with repulsive sores like those of a leper.

“Where are you from?” asked the Second Patriarch. “What are you doing here?”

“I have come to take refuge with the High Master, and to study and cultivate the Buddhadharma,” answered Seng Ts’an.

“You have a loathsome disease and your body is filthy. How can you study the Buddhadharma?”

Master Hui K’o was clever, but Dhyana Master Seng Ts’an was even more clever. “I am a sick man and you are a high master,” he said, “but in our true minds where is the difference?”

Thereupon, the Second Patriarch transmitted the Dharma to Seng Ts’an saying, “This robe and bowl have been passed on from Bodhidharma. They certify that you have received the Dharma Seal. In order to protect it you must go into hiding, because Bodhiruci’s followers will try to harm you. Be very careful and let no one know that you have received the transmission.”

The Third Patriarch Seng Ts’an also feigned insanity while he taught living beings. During the persecution of Buddhism by the Emperor Wu of the Northern Chou dynasty (reigned from 561-577 A.D.), the Patriarch fled into the mountains. While he hid there, the tigers, wolves, leopards, and other fierce animals all disappeared.

After transmitting the Dharma to the Fourth Patriarch, Tao Hsin, Master Seng Ts’an invited a thousand Bhikshus to a great vegetarian feast. After they had eaten, he said, “You think that to sit in full lotus is the best way to die. Watch! I’ll demonstrate my independence over birth and death!” The Master left the dining hall, followed by the thousand Bhikshus. He halted by the trunk of a tree, and after pausing for a moment, he leapt up and grabbed a big branch. Then while swinging from the tree by one hand, he entered Nirvana. No one knew his name or his birthplace.

Someone is afraid and thinks, “The First Patriarch was poisoned, the Second Patriarch was beheaded, and the Third Patriarch died hanging from a tree. I certainly do not want to be a patriarch. It’s much too dangerous.” With this attitude, even if you wanted to be a patriarch you could not. As long as you fear death, as long as you fear anything at all, you cannot even be a patriarch’s disciple. Patriarchs are not afraid of suffering. They are not afraid of life and they are not afraid of death. Making no distinctions between life and death, they roam among people, teaching and transforming them. Like Fo T’o and Yeh She, they know that affliction is just Bodhi and that birth and death is Nirvana. So, tell me now, who is not afraid of birth and death? If there is such a one, I will make him a patriarch.

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東土三祖 - 僧璨


在隋朝的時候,是僧璨法師弘法,他是第三位祖師。這一位祖師,誰也不知道他從什麼地方來的?姓什麼?叫什麼?沒有人知道。他來見二祖的時候,是什麼樣子呢?是身上生了很多的瘡,很多的癰疽,這兒長一個,那兒也長一個,很多很多的,通身都是,就像大痲瘋一樣。人長那種病,要和一般的人都隔離,因為恐怕會傳染,就是這種病。

他就這樣來見二祖,二祖問他說:「你從什麼地方來的?你來到這個地方幹什麼?」

這個大痲瘋的人說什麼呢?他說:「我來皈依和尚,學習佛法。」

二祖說:「你病得這個樣子,污濁邋遢,身上這麼樣不乾淨,你怎麼可以學佛法呢?」

這個病人,你猜他說什麼呢?二祖本來很聰明,他比二祖更聰明。他說:「我這個有病的人,和你和尚,心有什麼分別?有什麼不同?」

二祖一聽,咦!這個人有點來歷,就說:「你不要講,不要講,我知道了。」於是乎,把法傳給他,就這麼樣傳的。

傳了之後,說:「你好好愛護這個法,你也要避一避;因為菩提流支這印度和尚,他自己是印度人,但是專門妒忌印度和尚。我現在接的,是菩提達摩的法,他的徒弟,就想把菩提達摩的徒弟都殺光。現在我傳法給你,你切記不要出鋒頭,不要教人知道,你要藏起來。」於是乎,三祖僧璨法師也學他師父的樣子,假裝發瘋癲,到處默默教化眾生。

他正趕上後周武帝滅佛法,於是乎,就跑到山裏,住了十多年。他住的山有很多狼熊虎豹;他去住的時候,這些狼熊虎豹,都不知道搬家搬到什麼地方去了,都沒有了。直到有一次,他見到道信祖師,就把法傳給道信;道信祖師是第四祖。

傳法之後,他就設了一個千僧齋。千僧齋,就是請一千個和尚來吃齋,他的徒弟不知有多少,都來吃齋。吃完齋,你說他怎麼樣啊?他說:「你們都認為坐著死,這是最好了;你們現在看看我,我給你們來一個特別的樣子。我生死自由!」怎麼樣子呢?說完這話,就在當時千僧齋那個地方,前面有一棵大樹,他一隻手攀著一個樹枝子,腳翹起來;並不是上吊,但是可就死了,奄然而化。這麼手扳著樹枝,就圓寂了。究竟他多大歲數?沒有人知道。他是什麼地方人?也沒有人知道。他姓什麼?叫什麼?也沒有人知道。這是三祖大略的事蹟。

有一個人在這兒聽經,這會兒就害怕了。害什麼怕?說:「第一個祖師菩提達摩,被人用毒藥毒;第二個祖師,被人殺了;第三個祖師,抓著樹枝也就這麼死了。這做祖師,太沒有意思了!太危險囉!我無論如何,不願意做祖師。」

你就想做,也不可能做,因為你怕死。做祖師的,就要不怕死,拿著死和生沒有分別。前面所謂「煩惱即菩提,生死即涅槃;遊戲人間,教化眾生。」這才能做祖師。你這麼膽小,連死你都怕,怎麼可以做得祖師?你連祖師的徒弟,都做不成!為什麼呢?你有所恐懼,有所怕。

祖師都是不怕苦,不怕難,也不怕死,也不怕生。前面講達摩祖師那兩個徒弟佛馱、耶舍,不是說嗎?「你手做拳,拳做手,你看快不快?」遠公大師說:「快!」他說:「煩惱即菩提,生死即涅槃,也是這麼快。」所以你不要怕死,就可以做祖師。現在誰可以不怕死,我都封他做祖師。上面說的是第三祖。

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Fourth Patriarch - Daoxin

The Fourth Patriarch’s name was Tao Hsin. While very young, Master Tao Hsin left home under Master Seng Ts’an and for sixty years he sat in Dhyana concentration, without lying down to rest. Although he seldom opened his eyes, he wasn’t asleep. He was working at cultivation. When he did open his eyes, everyone shook with terror. Why? No one knew. Such was the magnitude of his awesome virtue.

Hearing of the Master’s great virtue, in the seventeenth year of the Chen Kuan Reign of the T’ang dynasty (643 A.D.), the Emperor sent a messenger to invite him to the palace to receive offerings. Unlike we common people, who would attempt to wedge ourselves into the court without being asked, the Great Master, the Fourth Patriarch, refused the invitation saying, “I am too old and the journey would be tiring. Eating on the road would be too difficult. I cannot undergo such hardship.”

When the messenger delivered the Patriarch’s reply, the Emperor said, “Go back and tell him that the Emperor says that no matter how old he is or how difficult the journey, I have ordered him to come to the palace.”

The messenger returned to the Patriarch and said, “Master, regardless of your health, you must come to the Emperor’s court. We will carry you back, if necessary!” At that time, since there were no airplanes or cars, travel was difficult.

“No, I cannot go,” replied the Patriarch. “I am too old and ill. Take my head if you must, but my heart will not go.”

The messenger thought, “There is nothing to do but to go back without him. I cannot take his head to the Emperor. This Bhikshu is very strange; he is hardly human.”

The messenger then hurried back to the Emperor. “Your Excellency, you may have the Master’s head, but his heart will not move!”

“Very well, go get his head,” replied the Emperor. He put a knife in a box and gave it to the messenger saying, “Slice off his head, but under no circumstances should you harm this Bhikshu.”

The messenger understood. He returned to the Fourth Patriarch. “Venerable Master, if you refuse to come, the Emperor has ordered me to cut off your head,” he said.

Patriarch Tao Hsin said, “If in this life my head gets to see the Emperor, that will be great glory. You may remove my head now.” The messenger took out the knife and prepared to cut off his head. The Great Master closed his eyes and waited calmly for about ten minutes. Maybe it was ten minutes, maybe it was nine or eleven. Don’t become attached. It is certainly not determined exactly how long he waited. But nothing happened, and finally Master Tao Hsin got angry, just like the Second Patriarch, and shouted, “Hey! Why don’t you slice off my head!”

“The Emperor had no intention of harming you,” the messenger quickly replied. “He was just bluffing.”

The Patriarch heard this and laughed aloud. Then he said, “Now you know that there is still a person in the world who does not fear death.”

The family name of the Fourth Patriarch was Ssu Ma and his personal name was Hsin. Ssu Ma was an honorable ancestral name. Both the Emperor Ssu Ma of the Chin dynasty and the historian and skilled writer Ssu Ma Ch’ien of the Han dynasty had this name. When the Fourth Patriarch became a Bhikshu he took the new name Tao Hsin. He lived seventy-two years, sixty of which were spent without lying down even once to sleep. The Fourth Patriarch’s realm of accomplishment was inconceivable.

While Tao Hsin was cultivating, a nearby city was besieged by bandits for more than a hundred days, depriving its inhabitants of water and supplies. Seeing the lives of the people in danger, Master Tao Hsin left his mountain retreat to rescue the city dwellers. He taught them all to recite “Mahaprajnaparamita.” After they had recited for a time, the bandits fled and water reappeared in the wells. This is the response based on the Way which Master Tao Hsin evoked as a result of his superior cultivation.

When the Fourth Patriarch decided to build a temple, he looked with his Buddha eye and saw Broken Head Mountain surrounded by a purple cloud of energy. Observing this auspicious sign, the Master went there to dwell, changing its inauspicious name, “Broken Head,” to “Double Peak” Mountain.

The Master used expedient dharmas to teach living beings how to discard their bad habits. These stubborn living beings, however, often discarded what was good and continued doing evil. But the Master persisted and by using all kinds of skill-inmeans caused these stubborn living beings to realize their mistakes. He propagated the Dharma for more than forty years, transforming living beings greater in number than seedlings of rice, stalks of hemp, shoots of bamboo, or blades of grass.

One day the Fourth Patriarch said to his disciple Dharma Master Yüan I, “You should build me a Stupa. I am going to leave.”

In the second year of Yung Hui, of the T’ang dynasty (651 A.D.), on the twenty-fourth day of the ninth lunar month, Patriarch Tao Hsin, who had never been ill, sat down and entered Nirvana. His disciples locked his flesh body securely in the stone Stupa. A year later the iron locks fell away and the Stupa opened by itself. Looking in, everyone saw the body of the Fourth Patriarch still sitting in full lotus, appearing the same as when he was alive. The Master’s body had not decayed, but the flesh had dried out. The Fifth Patriarch, Hung Jen, wrapped the body with lacquered cloth and gilded it. This “true body” still exists today.

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東土四祖 - 道信


第四祖呢?第四祖又是一個特別樣兒。怎麼特別樣兒呢?他很小就出家,跟著僧璨祖師學習佛法。他六十年長坐不臥,他眼睛也常常閉著不睜開,但可不是睡覺,你不要誤會了!他閉著眼睛來用功。可是眼睛一睜開,怎麼樣啊?哦,一般人一看見他的眼睛,就都打戰顫,好像地震了似的,哦!嚇得那個樣子。常常是這樣,為什麼呢?誰也不知道,他就有這種威德。

他是什麼時候的人呢?唐朝的時候。在唐太宗貞觀十七年的時候,皇帝聽說第四代祖師在這兒,就派一個使臣去請他到皇帝那兒;皇帝要供養他,要拜他做師父。你看,要是現在,不要說皇帝請我去,就不請,我都要去見皇帝來攀緣一下,何況他來請我呢!怎麼可以不去?可是你說怎樣啊?他不去!他說:「我年紀太老了,走路也走不動囉!吃飯也不香囉!我老得多病,不能到京裏。」

使臣就回去對皇帝一說,皇帝說:「你再去,一定要把他請來!就說皇帝說的,無論如何你要去,你就老了,怎麼樣老,也都要去的。請你,你就要去的。」

所以這使臣又來了,就對他講:「皇帝說無論如何,你就老,就怎麼樣子,現在我們用人把你抬著,也要抬去的。我們給你預備轎子,把你抬到京裏去。」那時候因為沒有飛機,交通不是這麼方便。

四祖說:「哦!不行的,我不去,我太老了,不可能去了。如果你一定要我去,你把我腦袋斬下來拿去!但是我心始終不去的。」

使臣一聽,他這麼樣講,沒有辦法,怎麼可以把他腦袋斬去,拿給皇帝呢?就回去對皇帝說:「這個和尚,真是特別古怪,性情真是太不近人情。皇帝您請他來,他說就是把他頭斬了拿來,他心也不來見皇帝。」

皇帝說:「好!你就去把他的頭給我拿來。」於是乎,就用盒子裝上一把刀,說:「你到那兒,就拿這把刀,把他頭給斬了。」

這使臣說:「好!」

等到臨走的時候,皇帝對他又說:「無論如何,你不能傷這和尚,你不能殺這個和尚。」

啊!使臣現在明白了,於是乎,到那兒就說:「老和尚!你現在倒是去不去?皇帝叫我拿這把刀來,就是斬你頭的。這把刀,是皇帝賜給我的;你若不去,他就叫我拿這把刀,把你頭割下來,拿著你的頭去見皇帝。」

道信祖師說:「好啊!那是最好了!我的頭能見到皇帝,這一生真是特別地光榮。好啦!那你現在就來斬我的頭!」於是把頭伸出來。使臣拿著刀正比量著他的頭,一看見他把頭伸過來,趕快把刀放到盒子裏。

道信祖師閉著眼睛等他斬頭,等了大約十分鐘,恐怕有的。這是大約的,也不一定,你不要執著,說一定十分鐘;或者十一分鐘,或者九分鐘,都不一定的。看他沒有斬,道信禪師就說了:「喂!你怎麼不斬哪?」他發了脾氣,好像二祖似的。

使臣說:「哦,皇上叫我只是這麼講一講,不能傷和尚。」

四祖道信大師,哈哈一笑說:「啊!你現在知道世界還有人吧!」就是還有不怕死的人。

四祖道信禪師,俗家姓司馬,名字叫信,所以出家的名字,就叫道信。司馬這個姓,在漢朝和晉朝,可以說是貴族,因為晉朝皇帝,就姓司馬;漢朝有司馬遷和司馬相如,文章都作得非常好。這第四祖,生在很有名望的家族,從小就出家修道。他活了七十二歲,但是,六十年都是脅不著席,就是不躺著睡覺;他的成就,是有不可思議的境界。

他用佛眼觀察,自己應該到什麼地方去住?他一看,湖北有一個山,叫破頭山,這個名字很不好的,但有紫雲籠罩著。這紫雲,就是祥瑞的表現、吉祥的意思,於是乎,他就到這個山上去住,也改了山名,叫什麼名字呢?叫「雙峰山」,因為有兩個山峰。

他教化眾生時,遇到很剛強難化的眾生;教他們改惡向善,他們就改善向惡,不聽教化。以後他就用種種的權巧方便法門,結果把這剛強眾生,也教化得改惡向善,知道自己是錯誤的。他弘揚佛法,有四十多年,所教化的眾生,如稻麻竹葦那麼多;「稻麻竹葦」就是表示太多了,數量不知有多少。

有一次,他告訴他的徒弟圓一法師說:「你要給我造一個塔,我要走了。」圓一法師就給他造塔。後來他問:「塔造好了沒有?」圓一法師說:「已經造好了。」造好了,怎麼樣呢?在永徽二年(永徽,是唐朝高宗皇帝的年號)閏九月二十四日,道信祖師從來也沒有生過病,可是在這一天,他就坐在那兒,奄然而化,坐那兒就圓寂了。沒有什麼人知道他圓寂,他也沒有告訴大家說我要走了,沒有告假。

圓寂之後,就把他裝到塔裏,封上了。這是用石頭造的塔,本來用鐵都封著、鎖著的。過了一年,塔自己開了,鎖也都開了;大家就看見第四祖在裏邊,還是端然正坐,和活著的時候一樣,一點都沒有變。

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Fifth Patriarch - Hongren

The Fifth Patriarch, Hung Jen, also lived during the T’ang dynasty. His family name was Chou. He lived in Huang Mei County near Double Peak Mountain. When he was seven, he went to the temple on the mountain to attend upon the Fourth Patriarch. The Great Master Hung Jen cleaned the lamps and censer before the Buddha images; he swept the floor, carried water, split firewood, and worked in the kitchen. At age thirteen he took the ten novice precepts and studied under the Fourth Patriarch for over thirty years.

The Fifth Patriarch was eight feet tall and had an extraordinary appearance. When others treated him badly, he remained silent and unmoved. Because he did not give rise to discrimination, he never spoke of “right” or “wrong”, and when fellow Bhikshus bullied him, he never fought back. His calm, quiet manner indicated that he had realized a state of peace.

Even after working hard all day, the Master didn’t rest. Instead of sleeping, he sat in meditation, uniting body and mind in powerful samadhi.

Master Hung Jen lived in the woods of P’ing Mao Mountain slightly east of Double Peak Mountain, so his teaching is called the East Mountain Dharma Door. Once, like his master the Fourth Patriarch, he saw a horde of bandits besieging a nearby city. Their leader, a Mongol named K’e Ta Ha Na Lu, and his followers had so tightly cut off the communications that even the birds couldn’t fly in or out. The Fifth Patriarch went down P’ing Mao Mountain toward the city. When the bandits saw him, they were terrified, for they saw not only the Patriarch, but also a retinue of golden-armored vajra king Bodhisattvas armed with jeweled weapons, manifesting awesome virtue and brightness. The thieves retreated, their siege broken.

How was the Great Master able to command these vajra king Bodhisattvas? The Fifth Patriarch had cultivated and he recited the Shurangama Mantra. The Shurangama Sutra says that if you are constantly mindful of the Shurangama Mantra, eighty-four thousand vajra store Bodhisattvas will protect you from all danger.

In the fifth year of the Hsien Ch’ing reign of the T’ang dynasty (660 A.D.), the Emperor invited Great Master Hung Jen to the palace. The Master declined the invitation. The Emperor sent a second invitation which the Master also declined. Finally, the Emperor sent a variety of gifts, including rare medicinal herbs, as an offering to the Great Master, the Fifth Patriarch.

In the fifth year of the Hsien Hsiang reign of the T’ang dynasty (674 A.D.), the Fifth Patriarch said to his disciple, Master Hsüan Chi, “Build me a Stupa. I am going to leave.” In the second month on the fourteenth day he asked, “Is the Stupa ready?” Master Hsüan Chi replied that it was. The Patriarch said, “For many years I have taught living beings. I have taken across those whom I must take across and have transmitted my Dharma to Hui Neng, the Sixth Patriarch. Now, in addition, you ten should become Dharma Hosts, and establish Bodhimandas to preserve and spread the teaching among living beings.”

The ten he addressed were: Dharma Masters Shen Hsiu, Chih Hsien, I Fang, Chih Te, Hsüan Chi, Lao An, Fa Ju, Hui Tsang, Hsüan Yao, and also Upasaka Liu Chu Pu, who had dealt with correspondence and accounting. The Fifth Patriarch sent each of these ten people to a different place to teach and transform living beings.

Shortly thereafter, he sat very still and his energy dispersed as he entered Nirvana. During the seventy-four years of his life, the Fifth Patriarch Hung Jen had accepted many disciples, and had transmitted the Dharma to the Great Master Hui Neng.

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東土五祖 - 弘忍


在這個時候,第五代祖師弘忍,又看見師父的相好,就非常高興。雖然像活著的時候一樣,但是肉都乾了,都沒有什麼肉了。於是乎,用漆布把身體貼上金,保護這個真身,直到現在還在。這是第四祖。他教化的眾生,非常之多;他的入室弟子、傳法弟子,就是第五祖弘忍大師。

從西天到東土,歷代祖師各有各的特長,各有各的密行,各有各的來歷不同,現在略略說一說五祖大師的經歷。五祖大師,生在湖北雙峰山黃梅縣,俗家姓周,七歲就被送到廟上修行。大約是他父親、母親,都是篤信佛教,覺得世俗這種生活,煩煩惱惱,爭爭吵吵,貪而無厭,從生至死,沒有什麼真正的價值。所以有小孩子,在七歲的時候,就把他送到廟上,跟著四祖道信禪師出家。

道信禪師一見這個小孩子,知道他是法門的龍象,所以就儘量栽培他。可是四祖栽培他,並不是說天天給他吃點好的,穿點好的,住一點好的,這麼樣栽培他;他是天天叫他勤勞工苦作,如清潔的工作、煮飯、燒水、煲茶這一類的。總而言之,什麼工作都叫他做;叫他沒做過的,要做一做,試一試這種工作的味道。

白天他是勤勞工苦作,任勞任怨,不和同等的沙彌打架,也不拌嘴,就是認真腳踏實地用功修行。誰說他不對,他就很歡喜地接受,很歡喜地改過自新。七歲的時候,就是這樣一天一天修行。白天做一切的事護持道場,晚間就參禪打坐,認真用功。不是到晚間就趕快睡覺,一早也睜不開眼睛,爬不起來,不是這樣的。晚間練習坐單,坐那兒用功,修這一切的行門。一切的行門是什麼呢?就是自己誦經、持咒、拜佛、禮懺、研究學問,忙裏偷閒地用功修行,一分一秒也不空過。白天做一切的工作,也正是用功修行,晚間還參禪打坐,也是認真修行。所謂時時刻刻都痛念生死,不多說一句話,不少做一份活。一切的工作,都儘量做好;話不說那麼多,不和任何人爭,不和任何人吵,這是五祖弘忍大師。什麼叫弘忍呢?就是什麼他都忍,忍不了的,他也要忍;讓不了的,他也要讓。

經過這樣,到十三歲的時候,四祖大師觀察他可以受具足戒,所以給他授具足戒。受戒之後,十三歲就做比丘了!他身量長得高高大大的,身高八尺,相貌奇特。什麼相貌奇特呢?他眼睛有神,口不隨便講話,天天都是謹言慎行的。一看他就看得出,他是時時刻刻、行住坐臥都在用功,不把光陰空過。四祖一看他,觀察他是載道之器,可以弘化一方,所以就把衣缽傳給弘忍大師;他在中國是第五代的祖師。從釋迦牟尼佛,一代一代傳下來,傳到中國的五祖,這叫傳授心法;以心印心,直指人心,見性成佛的法門。

五祖大師的戒行精嚴,他修行是特別認真的。在當時也有一些土匪,常常到城裏,打家劫舍,搶金銀財寶。有一次,土匪就把湖北這個城圍上,弘忍大師忍不住,想要救城裏的老百姓;於是乎,他就下山,從東山那個地方,到湖北城裏。土匪一見著弘忍大師,就嚇得丟盔卸甲,望影而逃。為什麼這樣子呢?因為弘忍大師雖然是一個人下山來的,就是有隨從,大約也不過三三兩兩;可是這些土匪,就看到完全都是穿金盔金甲的天兵、天將,好像從天上下來的天神一樣,身穿著金盔金甲,手拿著寶劍,這麼威武其揚的。土匪一見到這樣的情形,就嚇得望影而逃;也不用一刀、一鎗、一箭,他們就嚇得撤退了。

這是什麼原因呢?很簡單,我告訴你們各位,因為弘忍大師誦持〈楞嚴咒〉。在《楞嚴經》上說過:誦持〈楞嚴咒〉的人,常常有八萬四千金剛藏菩薩,隨從他、保護他,到必要的時候,就救他、擁護他。所以土匪一見著弘忍大師,就嚇跑了;這可以說是金剛藏菩薩顯聖,也可以說是弘忍大師修行的威德,把他們都懾伏。

一個修道的人,能不用一兵一卒,把土匪嚇跑,這就是有真正的功夫,才能這樣子;若沒有真正的功夫,怎麼會有這樣的感應道交?因為這種種的靈異,所以四方的比丘,都望風而歸;就是聽到五祖的道風,就都去到他那兒學習佛法。所以當時在五祖的座下,常常有千餘人在那兒求法。

四祖大師,唐太宗召請他到宮裏去,想要供養他。有其師必有其徒,五祖弘忍大師,也是在唐高宗的時候,很多次皇帝請他到宮廷裏來,要供養他;他每一次都婉拒了,不到宮廷裏去受皇帝的供養。這種高風亮節,不是一般人所能明白的,他本著「富貴不能淫,貧賤不能移,威武不能屈。」這是頂天立地的大丈夫的行為,不是一般求名求利、迷戀財色名食睡這一類的人,所能了解的。由他這一點看來,這是佛教和其他任何宗教不同的地方。

在唐高宗咸亨的時候,他就對門人說:我要走了。叫門人給他造一個塔,用石頭造的。等他又問:「塔造好了沒有?」門人告訴他:「造好了。」於是乎,他就端然正坐,無疾而終。

可是在他入滅以前,他告訴人,說我傳法的人,有十個。這十個人,每一個都可以教化一方,都可以做一方的法主;這十個人,是他教化眾生以來,所挑選的十個嗣法的人。他告訴六祖大師說:「衣為爭端,止汝勿傳。」就是說,從你這兒,就不傳這個衣了!有衣,大家就爭,這是亂的開始。因此他嗣法的人有十位,就是神秀、智詵、慧藏、玄約、老安、法如、智德、義方,又有惠能大師,又有一個是劉主簿。他們都是接五祖法脈的嗣法門人,都可以做一方的教化主。說完這話,他就入滅了。以上這是五祖大師簡略的行狀。

這十位五祖大師的嗣法門人,每一位都有他的特長,或者是智慧第一的,或者是品行第一的,或者有道德第一的,或者有容忍第一的,或者有喜捨第一的,或者有慈悲第一的,或者有教化第一的,或者有修行第一的。總而言之,是各有所長,所以他們都值得做一般人的師表,做人天師,做眾生的依止師,做眾生的善知識。

總括起來說,他們這十位,沒有自伐的。什麼叫自伐呢?就是自己讚歎自己,自誇其德,表露自己與人不同,就是顏淵說的「願無伐善」那個「伐」。願無伐善,就是不說自己的特點,不說自己的長處,也沒有自誇的。不會自己誇讚自己,說我小的時候,如何如何;中年的時候、讀書的時候,如何如何,都是出乎其類,拔乎其萃,與人不同;也不會說我老年的時候,如何如何;也不會到處誇耀自己有多少皈依弟子,多少人相信自己。總而言之,不會神化自己,自吹自擂,自命不凡。凡是聖賢的人,都不會有這個毛病,也不會自大、驕傲,也不會自滿。

總而言之,他們都有優秀的德行,注重德行,不會圖虛名、好假好,在表面上用功夫,自欺欺人。這十位不驕傲、不爭、不貪、不求、不自私、不自利,也不打妄語。這是這十位教化主的行狀;要一一詳細說,需很多時間,這簡略的,大約就是這樣子。

現在在這兒研究歷代祖師,我們每一個人要迴光返照,自己選擇一個,我要學哪一位祖師?哪一位祖師,是我的榜樣?我願意照著他這樣去修行。我們要這樣想,聽經才有用,對我們自己的身心、生死上,才有幫助。我們如果聽經是經,我是我,我和經分開,我和祖師也分開,那始終我們不能得到利益。我們要「見賢思齊焉,見不賢而內自省也。」哪一位祖師,我們最佩服,我們就要向他看齊,向他學習,這才不把時間浪費。

好像方才聽說五祖大師七歲就出家,他不和他的同類沙彌打架,也不爭、也不拌嘴,就是天天好好地工作,好好地任勞任怨,這才真正懂得怎麼叫出家,懂得要怎麼了生死。如果你出家,還天天吵架,天天打架,天天罵架,這和沒有出家是一樣的,我們人人都要猛省這一點。

五祖繼承四祖的道統,所以唐高宗以皇帝的尊嚴,要請他到宮廷去供養,很多次他也不接受。因為他這樣自尊,不隨隨便便受國王的邀請,國王更加對他崇敬;於是乎,就把宮廷裏,最珍貴的藥品,和最尊貴的寶貝,叫使臣送去供養他。可是五祖大師,不因為這些珍貴的藥品,和寶貴的東西,就生大我慢,生大執著。他心裏沒有這些東西。所以他把所有的珠寶、藥材,散給大家。五祖大師把衣缽傳給六祖,於是乎,他就入滅。由摩訶迦葉到菩提達摩這二十八代祖師,傳到中國後,這第五代祖師大概的行狀,是像以上所說的。

回到祖師介紹


Sixth Patriarch - Huineng

The Great Master refers to the Sixth Patriarch, Hui Neng. The Master’s merit and virtue was great, he had great wisdom and compassion and so was a master of gods and humans.

When one is alive, one has a personal name. After one dies, that name is avoided. Hence it is called a personal name, a name which is not spoken.

When the Great Master’s mother gave birth to him, a fine beam of light arose, like that which the Buddha emits from his forehead. A strange, fragrant incense which had never been smelled before filled the room.

At dawn, the heavens are half dark and half light. Chü Hsi in “The Song of Household Affairs” wrote:

At dawn, get up; Sprinkle and sweep the hall. The inside, the outside, You must clean it all.

In China at that time there was no linoleum. In the morning, people sprinkled water on the mud floors, waited a bit, and then swept their houses clean inside and out.

The two strange Bhikshus were quite different from ordinary people. They were like the Fourth Patriarch who, by merely opening his eyes, caused everyone to tremble in fright. These two unusual Bhikshus came to name the Sixth Patriarch. Isn’t this strange? Who has two Bhikshus come to name him?

To say “above” and “below” when referring to a person’s name, is a most respectful form of address.

What the newly born Patriarch ate was sweet dew.

Some say that the Sixth Patriarch was twenty-four, others say that he was twenty-two. As the Chinese count he was twentyfour and as Westerners count, he was twenty-two. Whether he was twenty-two or twenty-four is not really important.

When the Sixth Patriarch heard the layman recite The Diamond Sutra and reach the line, “One should produce that thought which is nowhere supported,” the Sixth Patriarch said, “Oh! Not supported anywhere!” He was immediately enlightened.

A great many people had heard The Diamond Sutra, but none of them had become enlightened. Now in the West, perhaps someone will hear, “One should produce that thought which is nowhere supported” and, understanding the principle, become enlightened. That is what I hope. Whether or not it will actually happen is another matter.

After becoming enlightened, he did not say, “Hah! I am enlightened.” He was not like some people today who do not understand even a hair’s breadth of the Buddhadharma, yet claim to be enlightened.

The ancients, even when they had become enlightened, did not recklessly say, “I am enlightened!” Even less would people who had not become enlightened claim to have done so. It is necessary to seek certification from a good knowing advisor, a person who has already awakened. That is why the Sixth Patriarch went to Huang Mei to seek the Fifth Patriarch’s seal of certification.

Enlightened ancients did not attempt to certify themselves. Today, however, there are those who have not become enlightened and yet say that they have. Enlightenment and nonenlightenment are as different as heaven and earth.

Moreover, many naive young people take stupefying drugs and claim to have “gone to the void.” Confused demons, posing as good knowing advisors, certify them saying, “Yes, you have attained to emptiness. However, there is no place for you to live in emptiness. Come Back. Come to my place. I have buildings and houses; I have a commune!”

The young people say, “That’s not bad at all!” They take the demons as their teachers. Ultimately these “bad knowing advisors” do not know themselves if they are true or false. You and I do not know either.

But now we should use the Sutras for certification. The Sutras do not say that any foolish person has a commune in empty space. Even though rockets now go to the moon, space settlements have not yet been built. So this kind of talk simply does not get by.

Now we are exceedingly busy. In the morning, everyone gets up at four o’clock to recite Sutras. We are busy building houses on the Earth, not in heaven. Why? We are people on earth and so our houses should be built on the earth. We are forging our bodies into indestructible vajra bodies. Our bodies are our houses, but they sometimes go bad. Now, from morning to night, we are busy constructing them, cultivating them to be in the end like indestructible vajra bodies.

With an indestructible vajra body you can go wherever you wish. You can go into empty space, up to the heavens, down into the earth, or to the dragon king’s palace. It is very simple and you do not need a passport or a schedule. You are free to take off at your convenience. But first construct your indestructible body. Then you can do it.

After the Sixth Patriarch left Huang Mei, he had no safe place to live. Because Shen Hsiu’s disciples and followers of nonThe Buddhist religions wished to harm him, the Great Master went to live with hunters for sixteen years.

During this time no one knew that he was the Sixth Patriarch. He worked hard practicing Dhyana meditation while watching over the animals and birds the hunters had caught and secretly releasing the ones which had been only slightly injured and could still travel safely. He had much time to cultivate and perfect his skill, for no one came to trouble him.

If you do not truly cultivate, everything is easy, but if you do cultivate truly, demon-obstacles arise from the four corners and the eight directions. Unexpected circumstances prevail and things you never dreamed could happen do happen.

In his sixteen years with the hunters, the Sixth Patriarch dwelt without disturbance, living just as they did. That is genuine hiding. He did not seek fame or profit and he did not try to take advantage of circumstances. He practiced genuine cultivation.

They talked back and forth, querying each other on principle. Who asked whom? Dharma Master Yin Tsung asked the Great Master, the Sixth Patriarch. The Great Master had solved the dispute over whether the flag or the wind moved, by explaining that it was the mind that moved, and Dharma Master Yin Tsung had been astounded to hear a layman speak in such a deep and wonderful way. He got down from his Dharma seat and escorted the Sixth Patriarch to his room for a chat. “Where did you come from and what is your name?” he asked. Dharma Master Yin Tsung knew that this layman was a room-entering disciple of the Fifth Patriarch, one to whom the Fifth Patriarch had transmitted the Dharma. He immediately bowed to the Great Master. They then investigated the profound and mysterious; they talked about the wind and the flag. Until his talk with the Sixth Patriarch, Dharma Master Yin Tsung had not correctly understood the principle of the Dhyana School.

During the week of the eighth to the fifteenth day of the first month, Dharma Master Yin Tsung gathered the four assemblies together: the Bhikshus, Bhikshunis, Upasakas, and Upasikas. The purpose of the meeting was to shave the Master’s head so that he could leave home and become a Bhikshu.

People leave home for various reasons. Some find it difficult to obtain food and clothing. They see that those who have left home are well provided for, and so they leave home so they can eat and be clothed. Others leave home because they are old and have no children. They think, “I will leave home and take a young disciple who will care for me as a son would.” It is uncertain whether people who leave home for these reasons can really cultivate.

Some leave home because they are bandits or runaways. They leave home and cut off their hair so that the government won’t find them and cut off their heads! Some leave home when small, but it is not certain whether they can cultivate.

Some people have “confused beliefs.” Even so, they still believe, and that is good. For instance, the parents of a sick child may say, “The child may die of disease. We should give him to a temple and he can become a Bhikshu and we can go visit him. That is better than letting him die!” So out of confused belief, the parents give their child to the temple.

People of confused belief may not necessarily be bad, but people who “believe in confused principles” are definitely not good. They have faith, but it is misplaced. That is confusion within confusion and it is not good.

Some are “confused and without belief.” In their confusion they do not believe in anything. Finally there are the “believing and unconfused.” These people study the Buddhadharma with a faithful heart until they are no longer confused.

Of these last four types of people who have left home, one cannot say that any of them will be able to cultivate, nor can one say for sure that they cannot. Perhaps only one or two per cent can cultivate the Dharma. However, if you resolve to attain enlightenment in order to end birth and death, you can surely cultivate upon leaving home.

Again, there are those who no longer have a family and so leave their worldly homes.

Some leave the home of the three realms: the realm of desire, the realm of form, and the realm of formlessness. Once out of Ithese three realms there are no desires, no forms, and no formless consciousness. Because of their non-attachment, these people see the three realms as empty, and so it is said that they have left the home of the three realms.

Some leave the home of afflictions. It is essential to leave afflictions behind. If you do not cut them off, you may leave home, but you cannot know the Way.

The Sixth Patriarch cannot be put into any of these categories, for he was a special case. He had attained mastery, and so whether or not he left home made no difference. Even when he appeared to be a layman, he practiced the profound conduct of a Bodhisattva and he did not behave like a layman. In this way his act of leaving home did not resemble that of others in the assembly.

The eighth day of the second month is the day when Shakyamuni Buddha left home. On that day all the illustrious, virtuous and learned Dharma Masters gathered from the ten directions. Chinese Dharma Masters and Indian Dharma Masters came to administer the complete precepts to the Sixth Patriarch.

Dharma Master Yin Tsung invited Dharma Master Chih Kuang of Hsi Ching to administer the complete precepts to the Sixth Patriarch. Hsi Ching is another name for Ch’ang An.

The person who administers the precepts is called the Precept Transmitter. Precepts have a substance and mark and a dharma. If you wish a more detailed explanation, even finer discriminations can be made.

I do not use Ting Fu Pao’s commentary because it is often in error. In this case he says that three people are required to administer the precepts, while actually only one is necessary. At that time, Dharma Master Chih Kuang acted as Transmitter.

Chih Kuang was also a Vinaya Master, one who diligently studies the precepts and thoroughly understands the rules. In walking, standing, sitting and lying down, in each of these four great comportments, he must conduct himself in the awesome manner, not daring to deviate for the space of a single step. Every move a Vinaya Master makes must be in accord with the rules. Therefore the Shurangama Sutra says, “Severe and pure in Vinaya, they are noble models for the Triple World.”

Ting Fu Pao writes that there should be four Karmadanas, yet the Sutra mentions only one. He says that the one mentioned was the most famous of the four. Because he didn’t understand the precepts, his commentary is confused. There was only one Karmadana.

Karmadana is a Sanskrit word which means “to arrange events,” or “to explain rules.” The Karmadana makes certain that everything is done in accord with Dharma, in accord with the rules established by Shakyamuni Buddha. Anything not in accord with the Buddha’s rules is unacceptable to the Karmadana.

When conferring the precepts, the Precept Transmitter asks the Karmadana, “May the precepts be transmitted to this person?” The question is asked three times, and each time the Karmadana must reply, “Yes.”

On the precept Platform, the Karmadana and the Teaching Transmitter sit immediately to the left and right of the Precept Transmitter. The remaining seven certifiers sit on either side. That is the arrangement of the three masters and seven certifiers. They represent the Buddhas of the ten directions in speaking Dharma and transmitting precepts. Therefore, when leaving home, receiving precepts is especially important.

The Teaching Transmitter transmits the Sutras.

Ch’i To Lo, transliterated from the Sanskrit, means “flower of merit and virtue.”

Dharma Master Mi To understood the three divisions of the Tripitaka, Sutras, Sastras, and Vinaya, and so he is called a Tripitaka Master. He is closely associated with the Chinese Vinaya because he translated the Dharmagupta Vinaya from the Sanskrit into Chinese. All the precept spirits protected this intelligent master, and there are many miraculous events connected with his life. Mi To means flourishing. His full name was Ta Mo Mi To, flourishing Dharma.

The “former Sung” was the dynasty that preceded the Sui Dynasty, not the well-known Sung Dynasty of Sung T’ai Tsu.

Gunabhadra means “a worthy of merit and virtue.” This master established a precept platform at what is now called Kuang Hsiao Monastery. His engraving foretold the coming of a Bodhisattva in the flesh: not a Bodhisattva who had gone to Nirvana, but a living Bodhisattva.

Tripitaka Master Jnanabhaishajya, “wisdom medicine,” predicted that a living Bodhisattva would speak the Supreme Vehicle Dharma from beneath that Bodhi-tree, teaching the Dharma of a direct pointing to the mind to see the nature and realize Buddhahood.

As a true transmitter of the Buddha’s mind-seal, this Bodhisattva would “use the mind to seal the mind.” Shakyamuni Buddha held a flower in his fingers and smiling subtly, transmitted the mind seal of all the Buddhas to the First Patriarch, Mahakashyapa. Transmitters of the mind-seal are patriarchs. A Dharma Host is one who lectures Sutras and explains the Dharma.

Jnanabhaishajya brought a Bodhi-tree branch from India to China; not a whole tree, just a cutting. Bodhi-trees will grow almost anywhere. There are many such trees in China today. The Venerable Master Jnanabhaishajya’s flesh body has not decayed. It is preserved for veneration at Yüeh Hua monastery about five miles from Nan Hua Monastery. The caretaker there, who has left home, does not feed visitors, so if you wish to visit, you must bring your own food. When I was living at Nan Hua Temple, I went to see the Master Jnanabhaishajya’s body and found it in excellent condition.

The Sixth Patriarch had his head shaved and received the complete precepts. He then explained the Dharma for the four assemblies, teaching them the exclusive Dharma transmission, that is, the Dharma which has been passed down through every generation since the time of Shakyamuni Buddha.

The Sixth Patriarch left and returned to Ts’ao Hsi.

The black-robed are those who have left home; at that time laypeople wore white robes. They all went directly to Ts’ao Hsi with the Master. Some people say that they have been to Ts’ao Hsi when they have not. They falsely claim to transmit the Ts’ao Hsi Dharma and Dhyana source, the basis of meditation. The Dharma-ending age is just that: false Buddhists with phony credentials.

As soon as he realized that the Great Master was the Sixth Patriarch, a transmitter of the Buddha’s mind-seal, Vinaya Master T’ung Ying led his disciples to Ts’ao Hsi to study the Dharma under the Great Master.

When the Sixth Patriarch arrived at Ts’ao Hsi, he saw that the buildings were too small. Wishing to enlarge them, he paid a visit to the wealthy landowner Ch’en Ya Hsien. In this passage, the Sixth Patriarch refers to himself as the “Old Monk.” When he was twenty-four, he went to see Huang Mei; then he hid for sixteen years. At forty years of age, he called himself an “Old Monk,” and so I am entitled to do the same. The Master told Ch’en Ya Hsien that if he gave alms, he could transcend birth and death.

The Great Master handed his sitting cloth to Ch’en Ya Hsien, who said, “If you only want that large a piece of land, fine.”

But when he spread it out, the sitting cloth covered not only the area around Nan Hua Monastery, but everything within ten miles of where they stood. The Four Heavenly Kings appeared and stood guard in each of the four directions.

The area belongs to a living dragon; it has a flowing current and the mountain is like an elephant. Here, one may build a “treasured place,” a Bodhimanda.

“Level only heaven; do not level earth,” that is, where the land is high, the buildings may be made lower, and where the land is low, the buildings may be made taller. But do not level the earth, for if you do you will ruin the fine conditions of wind and water and the land will lose its efficacious energies.

The Sixth Patriarch often roamed about the countryside and stopped to rest where the landscapes were especially beautiful.

Why is the area around Nan Hua Monastery called Pao Lin? Pao Lin means “jewelled wood.” When the Venerable Jnanabhaishajya drank the water at Ts’ao Hsi, its taste was identical to that of the water in a certain place in India. He knew that the source of the spring was indeed an efficacious spot on which to build a temple. At dusk, he reached the site of Nan Hua Monastery. Gazing up at the mountain, he said, “This mountain looks just like Jewelled Wood Mountain in India. We shall call this ‘Jewelled Wood Bodhimanda.’”

Master Jnanabhaishajya was not alone; many of his disciples were travelling with him. He said to them, “The source of this stream is certainly a good site for building a temple.” Monastic buildings are called Aranyas, a Sanskrit word meaning, “silent place.” They are pure, quiet places for cultivation.

The clear blue waters reflected the bright shining mountain peaks. The area was particularly beautiful.

The village was called Ts’ao Hou, “descendents of Ts’ao,” because its inhabitants were descendents of General Ts’ao Ts’ao of the Period of the Three Kingdoms.

One hundred and seventy years after Master Jnanabhaishajya made this prediction, the Sixth Patriarch received the precepts and taught living beings at Pao Lin. The “Unsurpassed Dharma Jewel” refers to the Sixth Patriarch.

Sangha and laypeople who were to attain enlightenment at this place would be as numerous as the trees in a forest. It was therefore to be called “Jewelled Wood.”

The dragon was so big that you could only see the dragon; you couldn’t see the pond at all. He danced on top of the water, splashing it everywhere in waves which were ten feet, twenty feet, and even thirty feet high. He was showing off.

“Incredible!” said the disciples. “This dragon certainly intends to harm us.”

The Sixth Patriarch shouted at the dragon. He said, “If you really had spiritual powers, you could transform nothing into something and something into nothing; you could transform yourself or not be transformed, just as you wished, manifesting the great within the small and the small within the great.”

When the dragon heard the Sixth Patriarch dare him to manifest a small body, he disappeared. Strange? Think about it. Suddenly he wasn’t there. Then, in the time it takes to feel a hunger pang, a little dragon appeared, dancing on top of the water. The Great Master said, “You have a little body now, but you wouldn’t dare get into my bowl, would you? You wouldn’t dare. Dragon! I dare you to get into my bowl!”

The dragon flew across the water and swam up before the Patriarch. The Patriarch didn’t wait for the dragon to jump into his bowl, but reached right down and scooped him out of the water.

In Manchuria, where I am from, there is a saying, “Before there were people in Manchuria, you could scoop up the fish with a bucket and chickens fell into the cooking pot.” As for rabbits, you could just step outside, swing a stick, and knock over a few. This is what is meant by “scooped.” Catching the dragon was as easy as scooping for fish in Manchuria.

Dharma Master Fa Hai’s introduction says that the pond was on the left side of the hall, but it was actually on the right. One commentator, Ting Fu Pao, had never been there and consequently did not realize that the direction of the pond should have been determined from the Patriarch’s position when sitting in the hall, that is, on the right side.

回到祖師介紹

東土六祖 - 惠能


六祖大師名字叫惠能,父親姓盧,是廣東新州的百姓,也就是鄉下人。祖籍是范陽,范陽大約是在中國的北方,他原來祖籍是北方,遷移到嶺南做新州的百姓。父親的名字,叫行滔,母親是李氏。他父親的家裏很貧寒,所以六祖大師沒有錢念書。他生在唐朝貞觀時代,貞觀十二年歲次是戊戌,在二月初八日子時出生。

按照六祖大師的八字來斷,他生在戊戌,在中國的十二屬,戊戌年是屬狗的,這個年上,佔的是修羅。因為他佔修羅,所以這一生受了很多坎坷逆境。為什麼他受這樣的折磨來鍛鍊他?因為他生在那年上,是很剛強、很有主意的。可是月上,他很有仙緣。日上和時上,都是很有佛緣。所以按他這個八字來講,非常好;可是年輕的時候,要受點折磨。

在二月初八子時,他生的時候,毫光遍空。序文上說騰空,我想「騰」字,不太恰當,應該「遍」空,毫光遍滿虛空。在他出生的地方,一般人都見到毫光遍空。異香滿室,有一股異香,不是檀香,也不是沉香,是人間所沒有的香,所以叫異香,人間不能常見的這種香。這就是六祖大師出生時,一切護法善神、天龍八部,都來擁護他,所以虛空才有毫光,有這股異香滿室。

他生出後,第二天就有兩位異僧來;異僧就是梵僧,也就是在我們中國不常見的僧,可以說還是印度的裝束,像印度人的樣子,可是會說中國話。他們就對盧老居士行滔說,昨天晚間,你生了兒子,所以我們專程為他來起一個名字。名字叫什麼呢?就叫上惠下能。他父親問,為什麼叫「惠能」呢?異僧就答覆說:「惠」,是以法惠施所有的眾生;「能」呢?就是能作佛事。說完了這話,就從他家裏走出去。他們跟出去一看,就沒有了,不知所之;這兩個異僧,不知道到什麼地方去了,所以大家覺得很奇怪。

六祖大師出生後,不吃母乳,不吃母親的奶。有人說,這是他每天晚間,遇神人灌以甘露。這個「遇」字,我想用得不太恰當,可以改「有」,「夜有神人」。「遇」,是他走路遇著、碰到了,這叫遇。現在沒走路,六祖大師剛出生,不能走路,也不能到外邊去,怎麼會遇啊?所以這可以改為「夜有神人灌以甘露」。因為灌以甘露,所以他不知不覺,天天就長大起來。

不知不覺,六祖大師就長大到二十四歲。在這段時期,他從小就各處去斬柴來賣,以賣柴維持生活。各位想一想,六祖大師生有異稟,尚且要做樵夫,斬柴來賣,維持生活。他應該樣樣都充足,不需要自己辛辛苦苦去斬柴;可是他生在貧寒的家庭,過貧寒的生活,他能自給自足,能自強不息,鍛鍊他身體健康,成為法器。

我們根性,是不是有六祖那樣的深厚?我們修行,樣樣現成,都想不勞而獲,這樣能夠達到我們的目的嗎?我們的根性,不如六祖;我們的智慧,不如六祖;我們一切一切,都不能和六祖大師來比。我們就好逸惡勞,不認真用功,這真是自甘墮落。

六祖大師,不吃母乳,為什麼不吃母乳呢?我想這是他保持自己清淨,沒有後天的染污法,沒有生欲念的這種東西。就連母乳,也都是生欲的;所以現在我們喝牛奶,更是生欲。六祖大師連母乳都不飲,我們想一想,我們喝牛奶,自己給自己辯護說:「我呀,怕不健康。」

六祖大師,有神人灌以甘露;在四十二手眼裏,有甘露手。甘露就是水,以水來滋潤他。甘露能除人的飢渴,能令人飽滿,能令人除去一切的煩惱;所以六祖大師在乳哺的時候,就和一般人不一樣。人家用的東西,他不用,可以說在母腹裏,就是吃齋的;出母腹之後,可想而知,他更是吃齋的。

六祖大師這種奇特的地方,是太多了。我們想一想:我們是不是要比六祖大師,更要勤勞、更要用功?五祖見到六祖大師,還叫他去勞作;他就一邊舂米,一邊用功。所以我們修道的人,行住坐臥,都應該在用功;不應該在那兒,盡講張家長、李家短。修道的人,時時刻刻,都要謹言慎行。

六祖大師,既然年長至二十四歲,這是已冠的時候,可是他仍然斬柴、賣柴。有一天,他賣柴,到一個客人的家裏,把錢收回來,聽見有人在旁邊讀誦經典。聽念經念到「應無所住而生其心」,他豁然開悟。

在佛教裏頭,開悟雖然是自己開悟,也要有傳承,有人給他印證,不能自己冒冒失失說:「我已經開了悟,我已經得到什麼什麼了。」這是不可以的,必須要經過善知識印可;所謂印可,就是承認他開悟。因為佛教裏注重傳承。傳承,就是你會什麼法,要有人給你證明,是哪一位傳給你的?傳給你的師父,要負完全責任,不是冒充的。

所以六祖大師雖然自己開悟,還要去訪求善知識,來給他印證。他知道客人讀的是《金剛經》,他就問《金剛經》是從什麼地方請來的?這客人就告訴他,是從湖北黃梅雙峰山東山禪寺請來的。在這時候,他明白了,就想到湖北去求法,印證他所見的是正確不正確?但是他沒有錢,又有老母在堂,這怎麼辦呢?當時有一位護法居士,往昔和六祖大師有大因緣,就仗義給他十兩銀子。這十兩銀子,在當時很好用的,夠他母親安家的費用。他把事情料理完畢後,於是乎,就到黃梅那兒去求法。

五祖一見著六祖大師,就認識他是法器、法門的龍象,可是不動聲色,叫他到碓房裏踏碓。六祖大師踏碓的時候,腰上拴一塊石頭,幫著他來舂米,因為石頭是重的,能幫助他的力量,所以那塊石頭,就叫墜腰石。在那兒舂米,舂了八個月,沒和任何人講過話,也沒有和任何人拉過關係,就是在那兒,勤勞工苦作。

有一天,五祖問他:「米都做好了沒有?」

他說:「米做好了很久,米已熟矣。」於是乎,五祖就把衣缽、信物傳給他,令他紹隆佛種,做第六代的祖師。這時是龍朔元年,這一年就是辛酉歲月。

在中國風俗,什麼事情,人都想爭,就連修道,得到祖師位,也想爭。五祖傳給他衣缽,當時因為是單傳直指,從摩訶迦葉,一代一代傳下來,都是單傳直指,所以等他接法後,五祖叫他趕快離開道場。不離開,恐怕有人和他爭奪祖師的位。所以就告訴他,說:「衣為爭端,止汝勿傳。」說衣缽是大家要爭的東西,從你以後,就不傳衣缽,傳法不傳衣。

六祖大師於是乎連夜走了,五祖也幾天不見人;大家就要求見他,要求他傳法給大家。五祖就說:「法已南行矣!」就是說,法已經往南去了。

於是乎,神秀率著一班人,連夜追六祖。當時就有惠明禪師,以前做大將軍的,他有飛毛腿,跑得特別快;六祖大師雖然連夜走的,也沒有走多遠,於是乎,就被惠明禪師追上。惠明禪師看見六祖將衣缽放到一個石頭上,就搶,可是卻拿不動;他雖然有很大的力量,可是拿不動這衣缽。這時候,他知道這不是可以搶的東西,於是乎,對六祖大師說:「仁者,仁者,我為法來,非為衣來。」說我為法而來,不是為衣缽而來;於是乎,六祖大師就傳法給他。可是他還追問:「上來仁者對我說的密語密意之外,仍有祕密者乎?」六祖大師就說:「密在汝邊!」意思是說,密在你自己那兒,不在我這兒,你要好好修行。

之後六祖大師南歸,隱遁十六年;南歸,就是向廣東來了。這十六年期間,六祖大師就專門修行,培養福德和智慧。他和打獵的人在一起,所謂和光混俗,「和其光,同其塵;挫其銳,解其紛。」在當時,六祖大師已經開悟,有五祖給他證明,傳給他祖師的位子;可是他不到處自我宣傳,不到處令人知道他是開悟的祖師,他沒有向任何人說過。

在這十六年中,和打獵的人在一起過生活;每天所吃的,是肉邊菜,所做的,是放生的工作。他看哪一個飛禽或者走獸,如果能自己跑得動、飛得起來的,他都把牠們放開,令牠們不遭屠宰之苦;這就是行菩薩道、培福培慧的地方。所以說人哪,「時時行方便,處處積陰功。」不需要銅錢和財寶;你只要力量能做到的,你就做,這就是修福修慧的方法。

在獵人隊裏,韜光晦跡,藏器待時;經過十六年,到唐朝儀鳳元年才離開。正月初八丙子這一天,他在廣州光孝寺,遇到印宗法師,來詰論玄奧。詰,就是互相盤問,你問問他,他問問你。玄奧,就是指風幡之辯:有人說是風動,有人說是幡動;六祖大師出來就說,這不是風動,不是幡動,是仁者心動。

印宗法師看見一個在家的居士,居然能說出這樣究竟的道理,直指人心,的確是微妙得不可思議,知道六祖大師是非常人。於是乎就下座,請他到方丈室裏去,問他的來歷。六祖大師這時候,也就直截了當、單刀直入,承認自己是五祖親傳嗣法的第六代祖。

這時,印宗法師納頭便拜,知道現在是遇著祖師了。雖然他是一個在家居士,可是印宗法師也非常豁達大度、不拘形骸,就請六祖大師上座,向他頂禮。於是就在正月十五,普會四眾,召集比丘、比丘尼、優婆塞、優婆夷,佛教的四眾弟子,都一起聚會,為師薙髮,就為六祖大師落髮。據說現在光孝寺,還有六祖大師的頭髮在那兒。等到二月初八,又集諸名德,給六祖大師授具足戒。集,就是召集;諸,就是很多;名,就是當時有德行、有名望的大德高僧。

在當時,西京有智光律師,做六祖大師的授戒師;蘇州有慧靜律師,做六祖大師的羯磨和尚;荊州有通應律師,做六祖大師的教授和尚;中天竺有耆多羅律師,為六祖大師說戒;西國有蜜多三藏,為六祖大師來證戒。

這個戒壇,是在劉宋〈南北朝)時,求那跋陀羅三藏尊者創建的。他創建後,就立上一個碑,他說:「後有肉身菩薩在此受戒。」六祖大師,就是在這個戒壇受戒。

又在梁天監的元年,有智藥三藏尊者,從印度坐船,經過南海到曹溪。到了曹溪,他捧起水來喝;一喝,就說:「咦!這個水,和印度寶林山的水,是一樣的味道。」他在那兒找聖處,找曹溪的源流,那個發源的地方。現在到了這兒,他說這地方一定可以建立道場,他帶著一棵菩提樹,就種到戒壇的旁邊。他預先留一個預言,就說:「一百七十年後,有肉身菩薩在這菩提樹下,開演上乘的佛法,這是真傳佛心印之法主也。」說這真正是傳佛以心印心的法門,正法眼藏的法主。

六祖大師受戒之後,和四眾弟子說法,開示單傳直指人心、見性成佛的正法眼藏、涅槃妙心、實相無相的心法。他所行所作,都是求那跋陀羅三藏預先所說的,和智藥三藏所說的,也絲毫都不錯。

四方釋子雲集而來的,不知有多少。到第二年春天,六祖大師,辭別所有信眾,要回到曹溪寶林山去。這時候,印宗法師帶領著這些學者,來歡送六祖大師到曹溪寶林山,當時有一千多人歡送他。又有荊州的通應律師,率領著學人數百人,同六祖大師在一起;依師而住,就是都依靠六祖大師。

六祖大師,到了曹溪寶林山,看見所住的寮房很少,也都殘缺破壞,不能住太多人,所以他要把它擴大。於是乎,就走到里人陳亞仙那兒。里人,就是南華寺那個地方的鄉下人。見陳亞仙,對他說:「老僧我啊!想找一塊坐具之地,不知你能不能捨?」

陳亞仙說:「你坐具有多大呢?有幾許闊啊?」

六祖大師就把坐具給他看。他說:「這好辦,你只要坐具的一個地方,這是沒有問題。」亞仙就答應了。

六祖大師說:「你答應了?那好!就要這麼一個坐具的地方啦!」於是乎,把具一打開,遍罩南華四境。這個面積,我也不確實知道有多大;總而言之,四大天王都現身了,站在四方。

陳亞仙一看這樣情形,就說:「好了,我知道和尚的法力無邊。但是我的高祖墳墓在這兒,希望你以後建造寺廟的時候,還保留墳墓;其餘的地方,我都捨了,我都布施出來。」

講到這裏,你們不知道有什麼感想?六祖大師,只化一個坐具的地方,之後他的具,居然就長得那麼大,遮蓋四境,這是不是一個欺騙呢?好像地藏王菩薩化九華山,聽說也是這樣子。佛教的祖師、菩薩,遊戲人間,這好像有賭博的性質,和人說這樣子,又不這樣子。我有點不敢同意這種的法力,我不知道你們的看法如何?我們要互相研究研究,誰有什麼意見,可以提出來說一說。這個祖師、菩薩,為什麼說一個坐具的地方,可是一展開具,卻遮了那麼多的地方?各位,我們來共同研究研究這個問題。在佛教裏,是不是以訛傳訛,道聽而塗說,把事情就弄得越講越神祕?

不要在那兒好像無動於衷似的,要講話的講話,現在不是入定的時候!

弟子:六祖可能跟陳亞仙有緣,希望給陳亞仙一個布施的機會,譬如他布施的地方大,所以他的功德就大,給陳亞仙做大功德。

上人:我現在給你種福田的機會,怎麼樣?你種不種呢?

弟子:謝謝。種!

上人:還有誰,快講!快一點,快一點!還有誰要說你的看法?不要等著叫名字。這西方是民主式的國家,我們誰願意說什麼,就說什麼,無拘無束,用你的智慧,說出一個真理來。

問題就是,六祖大師向陳亞仙化緣,他出家人應該不打妄語。他拿出具,就那麼坐的一個地方;等一打開,就把南華寺幾十里,都蓋住了,蓋到四境,四大天王現身,在四方坐鎮,說有這樣情形。有人說,地藏菩薩向閔公化緣,也是用坐具,一罩就把九華山都給罩住,罩著全九華山,都成了坐具底下的土地。你們都看見過坐具,不是很大的,方圓連一丈也沒有;可是打開後,遮蓋了幾十里路那麼大的面積。我認為祖師不應該打大妄語,這是我的意思、我的看法。你們看法是怎麼樣?

方才這位居士說的是,大約六祖大師和陳亞仙有緣,叫他多種福田,所以就向他化大緣。那麼我的智慧隨時就來了,我說我要向你化小緣,你種不種福田?他說他種。種的福田是多大?我不知道。等到將來,不要寫出來像六祖大師用具罩住那麼大一個地方,就嚇跑了。萬佛城的面積是五百多英畝,也是不小的地方;可是我沒有這個本事,我也沒有這個具,不能罩這麼多的地方,你們說這怎麼辦?我因為遇著很多人,問我這個問題,所以今天我替他們來問你們各位,我要考考你們。

我講〈六祖法寶壇經序〉,現在講了這麼多,我不知道你們有哪一位,把我講過的能背得出?若能背得出,請上來背一背;那就算你們好像六祖大師展具似的。你們若能背得出,我認為你們也會展具了;你若背不出,你們都還應該學一學怎樣展具。有沒有人要上來背的?

有人說,我會了,但是我不願意出鋒頭。你不願意出「風」頭,可以出出「雨」頭,哭一哭,crying,因為你背不出來,就得crying。這麼多人裏頭,一個也沒有能背得出的?出家人、在家人,都包括在內,真沒有一個人能把這個序背出的?這一關若過了,那不錯的。真沒有人背得出?真沒有人懂?有人能背得出?快上來背,快點、快點!你能背卻不背,那將來你就該愚癡。從「大師名惠能,父盧氏,諱行滔,母李氏。」背起,看看能背多少?原來你們都還給我囉!Okay,你們真是沒有貪心啊!

陳亞仙看見這個情形,知道六祖大師法力無邊,所以他對六祖說:「我知道和尚是法力無邊的,但我高祖的墳墓,埋在這個地方,我希望你以後建塔、建道場的時候,把我祖先的墳墓保留著不破壞;其他的地方,我完全捨給你。可是這個地方,是生龍白象的來脈,你只可平天,不可平地。」這個地勢,你不可以動。你可以平天上的,上面平可以,地下不可以平;因為你一平,就把這種風脈破壞了。

六祖大師,聽他這樣說,就答應他,所以以後建立道場的時候,都照著陳亞仙所說的話來做。保留他高祖的墳墓,沒有破壞;在地上,是做梯形的,沒有什麼破壞地理,所以一切一切,都照著陳亞仙所說的話來做。

現在寶林山那兒,有南華寺,最近聽說,南華寺的方丈惟因圓寂了。我在四十多年以前,在南華寺和他很熟的,他那時候,在客堂當知客,是廣東人。我剛一到南華寺,我問他什麼事情,他講廣東話,我也聽不懂。問他有沒有什麼?他說「有」。我也不知道什麼叫「有」,會意大約是「沒有」,就是有無的「無」字的別音。這個老同參最近圓寂,我們在這兒,希望給他立一個往生的牌位。他的名字,叫惟因,字知果,和夏威夷那位知定法師,是師兄弟。知定法師,名字叫惟妙,字知定。在老和尚的後人裏,他還算是一個修行人。

這是我在南華寺見到的,陳亞仙的墓,現在還在六祖殿前邊,東南角那面牆的地方;那裏有一塊碑,叫陳亞仙之墓。墳墓還保留著呢!六祖大師,當時在寶林山各處遊覽,每到一個覺得特別好的地方,他就在那兒休息休息。

有一個時候,外道想把六祖大師置之死地,就放火燒山,把南華寺和山,都給點著火。六祖大師在山上,坐到石頭洞裏頭,那個石頭洞就只能坐一個人,結果也沒燒死。一般的外道以為,這回一定把六祖大師燒死了。

你看!身為祖師,就有這麼多不同的因緣,有一些外道,想要來傷害他。當時神秀有一些個不聽話的徒眾,不聽神秀的話,就想把祖師位搶給他師父,也到南華寺對六祖大師不利,也想危害六祖大師。

不單活著,有人要傷害六祖大師;六祖大師圓寂後,還有人要請他的頭回去供養。所以韓國就來一個金大悲,想要請他的頭。以祖師的德行和智慧,尚且發生這種的災難,所以我們後人修行,不要怕一切的困苦艱難,要向前去弘揚佛法。

在當時,神秀大師,因為他作的偈頌,六祖大師認為沒有合格,他也忿忿不平的;一定是在言語之間,表露過不滿意的地方,所以,他的徒眾聽見他這種的理論,就要去搶衣缽回來給他師父。

以六祖大師的德行,神秀大師的修行,本來不應該發生衝突,可是這些徒眾,唯恐天下不亂,製造出來一些矛盾的問題。這都是陰錯陽差,也是佛教在中國發展史上的污點,所以佛教才沒有發展得那麼快,所謂好事多磨。

這樣看來,在唐朝的時候,就是這樣子,難怪現在佛門裏,互相勾心鬥角,互相「入主出奴,入附出汙」。以前旁門外道和佛教,是互相「入者主之,出者奴之;入者附之,出者汙之」,互相是非。到今天,就在佛教裏,也常常發生這個問題,都互相摧殘,你想我死,我想你亡,這麼勢不兩立的樣子。所以末法時代,就是人心不古,道德淪亡,互相唯利是事。

為什麼這麼爭呢?人就是把利欲看得太重,把錢、權力看得太重;把道義都忘了,把互相尊重的德行都忘了。這是現在佛教很可悲哀的事。所以我們身為佛教徒,一定不要做佛教裏的蟲子,不要做「獅子身中蟲,自食獅子肉」這一類的佛教徒。

我們要學習

性盡人己參天地
心同日月耀陽春

「性盡人己」,你盡人性、盡己性,又能盡物性。所謂盡性,明理就盡性;能盡性,就能立命,也就是「明德」、「新民」、「止於至善」。止於至善,就到那個最好的地方。你能盡人性,明白對方;盡己性,也明白自己;並能盡物性,天地間萬事萬物,沒有不是在說法的,沒有不是在演說妙法呢!你一舉一動、一言一行、一沙一塵,都是第一義諦的表現。你若能會得,就是百草頭上祖師意;你若會不得,就是盡擺烏龍,以為是有妙計。所以我們若明白,就不要做糊塗人;你若是糊塗人,想明白也,是不容易的。

互相爭、互相奪,這都是一般世俗人所有的;我們修道的人,不應該見利忘義,不應該背道而馳,不應該不顧道德仁義,一意孤行。所以我們無論做什麼事情,要「己所不欲,勿施於人。」我自己不願意得到的事情,不要加到旁人身上。我自己不願意的事情,為什麼要給旁人呢?所以「己所不欲,勿施於人。」不要學妖魔鬼怪的邪說,說:「己所不欲,必施於人。」不要這樣子,這樣子是邪說,是不正確的思想。又有說「矯枉過正」;矯枉不應該過正,可是他說「矯枉必須過正」,這都是邪說。所以,邪說就是差這一字,差之絲毫,就謬之千里。

我們現在在萬佛城,要學儘量吃虧、忍耐,人家對我們不好,我們就要迴光返照,要想:「哦,這是我的德行不夠,感化不動他。或者在往昔的期間,我對他也是有這樣的行為。」或者你想:「這真正是我的善知識,他是想要我好;若不想我好,他為什麼說我壞呢?我壞與他沒有關係啊!他說我壞,是想我再往好的做。」所以這樣一想,無論順逆,都是我們的善知識。我們切記,不要見利忘義,見到利益,就把志士之誼就忘了,就做一些顛倒、違背良心道德的事情,這是不可以的。

性盡人己參天地,「參天地」就是與天地合而為三。天、地、人,這是三,參天地的「參」,就是當「三」字講。「心同日月」,心像日月那麼光明,「耀陽春」,總是在春天的時候,照耀萬物,萬物得到陽光都生長。心要像日月那麼光明,不要有一些黑暗,不要盡裝一些妒忌、障礙、瞋恨,滿腔子都是那些比什麼都臭的東西。

今天,誰都知道,自己比不了六祖;我們既然比不了六祖,所以我們受的苦,應該比六祖更多一點。六祖尚且有千磨萬難來考驗他,來成就他,來幫助他;我們如果遇到逆的環境,不能逆來順受,那怎麼能做一個真正的佛教徒?所以我們要人人抱定宗旨,逆來順受,譭譽不動心。若能這樣,六祖大師能降龍伏虎,我們也能降龍伏虎。我們對人不發脾氣,這可以說把龍就降住了。

什麼叫龍呢?就是我們發起脾氣來,就像一條龍那麼不可思議的,能隱能顯、能大能小。脾氣像一條龍,就是忽然就來,忽然又沒有了,你找不著一個根,變化無窮。什麼叫虎呢?就是我們生怒氣的力量,就等於老虎那麼大的力量。「無明火,老虎神,這是前生的罪孽根」,你前生的罪孽重,今生你就好生怒氣。生怒氣,就有一些問題發生;你若不生怒氣,什麼問題也不會發生的。所以你能不發脾氣、不生氣,這就是降龍伏虎的辨法。不動肝火,就是降龍;不生煩惱,也就是伏虎。所以「道高龍虎伏,德重鬼神欽」;我們若有德行,不要說人,鬼神對你都是恭敬的。

當我到南華寺的時候,現在右邊建的禪堂,原來就是毒龍潭。潭裏有一條毒龍,常常出來作怪,每逢陰天下雨的時候,牠就顯神通,放出一股毒氣。人人在那兒,有的修修道,甚至於就中毒,就昏迷不醒了;有的時候,又發起神經來,這是很厲害的。

有一次,天陰陰的,這條龍現一個大身,用身體把龍潭都佈滿,然後把樹木也用暴風雨摧毀了。所以當時住那兒的僧眾,都非常恐懼,就告訴六祖。六祖出來看,笑一笑,說:「你真是神通不小,你能現大身,又能現小身,忽然就有了,忽然就無了。如果你真是神龍,現在你是大身,你即刻變成小身給我看看!」

這條龍聽他這麼說,果然就把身體縮得像一條蟲那麼大,有三寸多長,就在水裏游來游去。

六祖大師說:「你是有本事,你能變大身,又能變小身;可是你沒有膽量,跳到我的缽裏來。你若真有神通,你可以跳到我的缽裏來試一試。」

龍是處處想要爭第一的,處處想要做王稱霸的,所以你看中國做皇帝的,都說是真龍天子,就因為他想要爭第一¾¾做王。這條龍因為六祖大師說牠不敢跳到缽裏頭,牠就單要爭第一。你說我不敢跳?我跳給你看看!就跳到六祖大師的缽裏。可是能跳進來,就跳不出去了;於是乎這條龍就降伏了。

說起毒龍潭,我又想起一個經驗。我們人修道,切記不要躁進,不要貪快,不要想得到神通;你想要貪快,想要躁進,想要求速效,「其進銳者其退速」,你進得快,退得也快。所以我們都是慢慢的,不要那麼用科學,不要坐火箭上天,我們還要一步一步地走。你若一步一步地能走到天上去,那才是真本事呢!你不能走到天上,要藉著火箭的力量,那還不是你自己的真功夫。

我記得我收過一個徒弟,他會做成衣,很老實的,叫陸介霖,以後就跟著我出家。出家後,也很修行的,很不錯。有一次,我派他到鄉下做一點事情,我說:「我現在交給你我的拂塵,你有必要的時候,你才用;沒有必要的時候,沒有大的困難問題,你不要用。」這個拂塵就是白拂手,我交給他,我說:「你去辦事有什麼急難,你可以用一用。」他就去了。

到鄉下,就遇著很多人來找他,都說有病,叫他治病。他拿著我的拂塵,給這個掃一掃,這個病也好了;給那個撣一撣,那個病也好了。以後這些人,都瘋狂地來找他,一天到晚,沒有時間休息,就用這個白拂手,這麼給人家掃病。他那時候,沒有學白拂手,就拿我平時受持的白拂手,去這樣做。

回來就對我說:「師父,你的拂塵真靈!有什麼病,我給他撣一撣,他就好了。」

我說:「撣一撣,就好了,恐怕將來這個病,都跑到你身上,我看你怎麼辦?」我說這話,他不太注意,以後還修行。

以後我帶他到南華寺;在南華寺,他著了魔,因為有一個魔,不怕白拂手。這是什麼魔呢?牠的名字叫百子毒蛇,一生仔,就會生一百個,在南華寺常常作怪。怎樣作怪法呢?南華寺每逢戒期,牠就去攪鬧。怎麼樣攪鬧呢?一定令受戒的沙彌,或者沙彌尼,就有一個發神經的。

那時候,虛老在那兒傳戒,有人發神經,虛老也沒辦法。發神經是怎麼樣發法呢?一發神經,他就說他成佛了,他又是什麼什麼佛;也不穿衣服,上身下身,都不穿衣服這麼跑,不管什麼羞恥不羞恥,各處胡說亂講的,就這樣攪鬧戒壇。每逢傳戒的時候,一定攪鬧人,就有一個人會發狂的。虛老在南華寺,傳那麼多年戒,每一年都有這樣的,最後就輪到我徒弟身上,我這個徒弟,也發了狂。一發狂,十幾個人,沒有他一個人力量大,他身上還會放臭氣,人聞到就作嘔。一天到晚,就發神經。發神經說什麼呢?說我師父的法,原來都是假的;說四十二手眼都是假的。這個魔就是要這麼胡說八道,來破正法的。

正在這時,有一個明相法師,八十多歲了,也是坐單的;他八歲就出家,出家後自己默默苦修。他盡打般舟七,打了八次。每一個般舟七是九十六天,不眠不睡,站著走路,走九十六天;或者念佛,或者持咒,或者做什麼,總而言之,九十六天不休息,這叫佛立三昧。他這一生,修了八個佛立三昧,所以功夫不錯,他一入定,還可以做一些事情。

當時遇著這個老修行,他一來的時候,不知道是吃錯了什麼東西,就天天屙肚,屙得滿褲子都是邋遢東西;他在那屙肚,不能收拾自己的衣服。他是在上客堂掛單,我在南華寺當堂主,當時我這個班首,天天要到上客堂去看看有什麼人來?有什麼人走?為什麼我看這個呢?我想看看有沒有什麼異人、異僧,有沒有什麼高人到南華寺來?我不要當面錯過。所以每一天,我到上客堂去看幾次。他來了,我就看見。我一看這個老修行,覺得很有緣,可是他就屙肚。他屙肚,我就給他洗褲子;洗了幾天褲子,他屙肚好了。

然後,正在那時候,我的徒弟發神經了。我和老修行一說,老修行和我就想法子,來令我徒弟病好。當時一觀察問題,就是有一條毒蛇,叫百子毒蛇,在很久很久以前,就攪鬧南華寺。所以這樣一來,我們兩個人,以他的定力和我的定力,就把這毒蛇降伏,我的徒弟才病好。

為什麼說這個呢?這個徒弟,就是因為不聽教導,我給他拂塵的時候,叫他有必要的時候再用,沒有必要的時候,不要用。他不聽,就隨隨便便給人家治病,結果種了不好的因;到南華寺,他就發神經。雖然好了,這都是很危險的事情,所以我們修道,差之絲毫,就謬之千里。

在梁天監元年的時候,有印度的智藥三藏尊者,帶著一班徒眾,到寶林山,找這個源頭。到源頭的時候,他掬水而飲,就說這個水甘美香甜,與印度寶林山的水,是一樣的。所以對當時曹侯屯的居民說:「你們可以在這山上,建一個道場,建一個梵剎,等一百七十年後,有無上的法王,在這兒演說妙法,做為一方的化主。在那個時候,得道的人如林,非常多,所以這個山應該叫寶林山。」

在這時候,韶州的刺史¾¾韶州牧,叫侯敬中,他把智藥三藏尊者說的話,具表章上奏梁朝的皇帝。皇帝就批准這件事情,賜一個號,叫寶林,所以就成立這座南華道場了!這是在梁天監三年的事情。

在前面講南華寺有一個龍潭,潭裏有一條毒龍,這條毒龍,跳到六祖大師的缽裏,就不能再跳出去。六祖大師把缽裏藏著的龍,帶到堂上,就上堂給這條龍說法。說完法,這條龍把牠這個龍的身體就不要了,得到解脫了。南華寺到現在還有這條龍的骨,大約有七寸長;龍的腳、龍的爪子和龍的骨,都宛然俱全的。之後,毒龍潭毒龍的難沒有了,就用一些沙石、垃圾之類的,把龍潭填起來。現在在南華寺右方有個鐵塔,這條龍的骨,就在鐵塔裏。這是南華寺簡略的經過。

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